Flashcards in Management of Influenza Deck (17)
What are common symptoms of influenza?
Fever, myalgia, headache, rhinitis, sore throat, and cough. Sudden onset of symptoms is a telltale sign of influenza
What is the incubation period of influenza?
18 to 72 hours
Shedding spans what time frame?
viral shedding may occur up to 24 hours before symptom onset and continue for five to 10 days
T or F. Influenza is typically uncomplicated and self-limited in otherwise healthy patients
T. However, severe complications, such as pneumonia, encephalitis, respiratory failure, multiorgan failure, and death, can occur.
What strand of the influenza virus causes the most outbreaks?
What groups of people are at elevated risk for influenza related complications?
older adults, young children, persons with chronic medi-cal conditions, and pregnant women
The CDC recommends that all persons ____ y/o and older receive influenza vaccination
T or F. The CDC recommends initiating treatment as soon as possible after the onset of influenza-like symptoms in patients meeting certain criteria.
T. The CDC also recommends antiviral prophylaxis for persons who have had close contact with an infected person during the infectious period.
What class of agents are most effective against influenza?
Neuraminidase Inhibitors. Neuraminidase inhibitors block the viral neuraminidase enzyme, which is critical in releasing virions from the infected host’s cells. These drugs are active against influenza A and B
Antiviral chemoprophylaxis should be given to what groups of people?
Health care workers
Persons at risk of complications from influenza
Antiviral chemoprophylaxis should NOT be given to what groups of people?
Healthy children and adults
Persons who had close contact* with an infected person outside
the infectious period
Persons whose last close contact with an infected person was more than 48 hours before presentation
Oseltamivir is an oral agent that is approved for influenza prophylaxis in what kinds of patients?
one year and older, and for treatment of uncomplicated acute influenza in patients one year and older who have been symptomatic for no more than two days
Zanamivir is an oral inhalation agent that is approved for influenza prophylaxis in what kinds of patients?
patients five years and older, and for treatment of influenza in patients seven years and older who have been symptomatic for no more than two days
Inhaled zanamivir can worsen pulmonary status in patients with underlying pulmonary disorders, and should not be used in these patients.
What is Relenza?
a mixture of zanamivir and lactose drug carrier; therefore milk allergy is a contraindication
How effective is Oseltamivir?
Oseltamivir reduced the duration of symptoms by 0.55 days among healthy adults and by 0.74 days in persons at risk of complications
Reduced dosages are recommended for patients with impaired renal function
How effective is zanamivir?
time to symptom alleviation was reduced by 0.57 days in healthy adults and by 0.98 days in persons at risk of complications
No dosage adjustment is needed for patients with renal disease who are taking zanamivir