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Flashcards in PP fossa Deck (45)

What is the opening from the ITF to the PP fossa?

the pterygopalatine fissure


The PP fossa is the major site for distribution of what artery and nerve?

a.- maxillary a.
n.- maxillary n.


What is the anterior border of the PP fossa?

Posterior surface of the maxilla


What is the posterior border and roof of the PP fossa?

Sphenoid bone, including pterygoid processes and greater wing of the sphenoid.


What is the medial border of the PP fossa?

vertical plate of the palatine bone


What is the lateral border of the PP fossa?

PT-maxillary fissure


What are the major communicating "windows" of the PP fossa? Excluding the posterior wall

laterally- pteryogmaxillary fissure
anterior- inferior orbital fissure
medially- sphenopalatine foramen
inferiorly- palatine canal


What structures pass through the inferior orbital fissure?

infraorbital a. and n. Both continue through the infraorbital canal and out of the infraorbital foramen to distribute to the face


What are the major communicating windows of the posterior wall of the PP fossa?

Foramen rotundum and pterygoid canal both communicate with middle cranial fossa, and a small pharyngeal or “palatovaginal” canal leads to the nasopharynx.


What does the foramen rotunda transmit?

maxillary branch of trigeminal


What bone (specifically what part) can the pterygoid canal be found traversing through?

medial pterygoid plate. Run to the foramen lacerum in middle cranial fossa

The posterior canal opening is said to “continue” for a short distance in the cartilage that fills lacerum. But it’s simpler to think of it as a canal or communication from PP fossa to middle cranial fossa


What is the primary content of the pterygoid canal?

nerve of the pterygoid canal


Where is the pharyngeal canal located?

the sphenoid bone and the palatine bone that connects the nasopharynx with the pterygopalatine fossa


What doe she pharyngeal canal transmit?

It transmits the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary artery, as well as the pharyngeal branch of maxillary nerve.


Where are the first two "parts" of the maxillary a. located?

In the ITF. The last part is located in the PP fossa


The PP part of the maxillary artery is responsible for vascular supply to what structures?

major branches to the maxilla and maxillary teeth, the nasal cavity, and the palate


Where does the artery of the pterygoid canal branch of the maxillary a. travel and what does it supply?

The artery of the pterygoid canal passes anteriorly through the pterygoid canal from the PP fossa posteriorly to the middle cranial fossa next to the nerve (of the same name). It distributes to the upper pharynx and auditory tube.


Where does the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary a. travel and what does it supply?

The pharyngeal branch passes through the pharyngeal canal posteriorly with the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary nerve. It distributes to the roof of the pharynx (nasopharynx), sphenoid sinus, and auditory tube.


What are the other branches of the maxillary a.?

the posterior superior alveolar a., descending palatine, sphenopalatine, and infraorbital continuation


Where does the descending palatine a. run?

through the palatine canal to supply the hard and soft palate


What does the sphenopalatine a. supply?

ts branches distribute to BOTH lateral wall and septum. Sphenopalatine can be considered the terminal branch of maxillary.


Does the infraorbital branch of the maxillary a. go through the inferior orbital fissure?

Yes, then continues to the infraorbital foramen


Where does the superior posterior alveolar a. run? What with?

The posterior superior alveolar artery arises just as the maxillary artery enters the PP fossa. Together with the like-named nerve it passes through the posterior superior alveolar foramen on the infratemporal surface of the maxilla


What does the posterior superior alveolar a. supply?

It supplies molar and premolar teeth and adjacent gingiva of the upper jaw. Other branches of this artery distribute to maxillary sinus and the BUCCINATOR muscle


Where do the anterior superior alveolar a. branch from the maxillary?

they typically branch from the infraorbital a. in the infraorbital canal


What does the anterior superior alveolar a. supply?

descend in bony canals from the infraorbital canal to the upper incisors and canine teeth, and to the maxillary sinus.

There is usually also a middle superior alveolar branch between posterior and anterior branches


What is the typically anastomose of the infraorbital a.?

the angular a. from the facial a.


The lateral nasal branches of the sphenopalatine a. anastomose with?

branches of the anterior and posterior ethmoid a. from the ophthalmic a.


Where do the orbital branches of the maxillary n. run? What do they innervate?

Small branches that pass through the inferior orbital fissure and contribute to the supply of the orbital wall and sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses


How does the zygomatic branch of the maxillary n. run?

enters the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure. On the lateral orbital wall it divides into zygomaticotemporal and zygomaticofacial branches.

These branches enter the face through like-named foramina and supply skin on the face


Does the infraorbital branch of the maxillary n. travel through the inferior orbital fissure?

Yes. Infraorbital nerve is the anterior continuation of the maxillary nerve that leaves the PP fossa through the inferior orbital fissure. First it is found in the infraorbital groove in the floor of the orbit, and then conOnues forward in the infraorbital canal, before entering the face via the infraorbital foramen


Where does the posterior superior alveolar n. branch from the maxillary n.? What does it supply?

Branches off maxillary in the PP fossa, passes out laterally through the PT-max fissure. Continues laterally and inferiorly to enter the posterior surface of the maxilla through one or more small alveolar foramina. It then passes inferiorly just deep to the mucosa of the maxillary sinus to join the superior dental plexus. It also innervates adjacent gingiva, and contributes to innervation of maxillary sinus.


What from the superior dental plexus?

posterior, middle and anterior superior alveolar nerves


Where do the anterior and middle superior alveolar nn. branch from the infraorbital n.?

What do these supply innervation to?

in the infraorbital canal where they join the superior dental plexus to innervate the upper teeth. These nerves also supply the maxillary sinus


What supplies GSA to all of the lower teeth/tooth pulp?

the upper teeth/tooth pulp?

The inferior alveolar nerve

the superior dental plexus


What supplies the lingual gingiva?

The buccal gingiva?

the lingual nerve

the buccal gingiva is supplied by the buccal nerve and the mental nerve


What supplies the palatine gingiva?

greater palatine n. with contribution from the nasopalatine n. (they communicate somewhere near the incisive canal)


What do the posterior inferior lateral nasal nerves branch from? Where do they run? What do they supply?

greater palatine n. in the palatine canal and they pass through small foramina in the perpendicular plate of the palatine bone and contribute to innervation of lateral nasal wall.


What does the lesser opaline n. supply?

the soft palate


Where does the pharyngeal branch of the maxillary n. travel and had does it supply?

Pharyngeal nerve passes posteriorly through pharyngeal canal to supply mucosa of the nasopharynx


What branches of the maxillary come from the PP ganglion?

palatine nerves, lateral nasal branches, sphenopalatine nerve, and pharyngeal nerve.


Where does the posterior superior alveolar run and what do they supply? What about the nasopalatine n.?

Posterior superior lateral nasal branches pass out of the ganglion and through sphenopalatine foramen to innervate the lateral nasal wall.

The nasopalatine nerve also
passes out of the ganglion and travels through sphenopalatine foramen to distribute to the septum


What are the three sources of innervation to the annals septum?

the anterior septal branch of the anterior ethmoid, posterior septal branch of the nasopalatine n., and olfactory fibers. The nasopalatine n. passes along the septum into the incisive canal where it anastomoses with the greater palatine n.


The taste buds of the soft palate are innervated by?

greater petrosal n.


How does the greater petrosal nerve distribute?

The greater petrosal never carries GVE parasympathetics and SA fibers. The preganglionic cell bodies of the GVE fibers can be found in the brainstem (lacrimal, or superior salivatory nucleus) and the cell bodies of the SA part can be found in the geniculate ganglion in the facial canal. Both of these fibers leave the facial canal via the hiatus for the GP, up into the middle cranial cavity where it travels to the pterygoid canal of the sphenoid bone. The GP joins the nerve of the pterygoid canal en route to the pterygopalatine ganglion located in the PP fossa. In the PP fossa, the SA fibers branch from the GVE fibers and travel through the palatine canal with the greater and lesser palatine nn. to the taste buds of the soft palate. The GVE postganglionic fibers of the GT nerve leave the PG ganglion in the PP fossa and split to the following distributions:

1) one branch hitchhikes on the zygomatic n. of V2 and then hopes over to the lacrimal n. of V1. to distribute to the lacrimal gland

2) Postganglionics also distribute with the maxillary branches that originate from the ganglion, such as palatine nerves and nasal branches to innervate GVE parasympathetics to the nose