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Beliefs In Society - SCLY3 > Marxism, Religion And Change > Flashcards

Flashcards in Marxism, Religion And Change Deck (34)
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Ideas, including religious ideas are seen by Marxists to have what?

Relative autonomy


What does relative autonomy mean?

Ideas can be partly independent of the economic base of society


What does Marx see religion as being capable of?

Humanising a world made inhuman by exploitation, even if the comfort is illusory


What theorist takes of the idea of religion having a dual character?

Friedrich Engels


What does Engels' idea of religion having a dual character mean?

It means that although religion can inhibit change by disguising inequality, it can also challenge the status quo and encourage social change


Who also sees religion as having a dual character and argues for a view of religion that recognises both positive and negative influence on social change?

Ernst Bloch


For Bloch, what is religion an expression of?

'The principle of hope'


What is the 'principle of hope'?

Our dreams of a better life that contain images of utopia - the perfect world


What is liberation theology?

A movement that emerged within the Catholic Church in Latin America at the end of the 1960s, with a strong commitment to the poor and opposition to military dictatorship


What factors led to the development of liberation theology?

Deepening rural poverty, human rights abuses following military take-overs and the growing commitment among Catholic priests to an ideology that supported the poor and oppressed violations of human rights


The emphasis in Liberation theology is on 'praxis' - what does this mean?

Practical action guided by theory


How how does Ernst Bloch argue that religion can bring about social change?

He argues that religious beliefs create a vision of a better world, which, if combined with effective political organisation and leadership, can bring about social change


How does Liberation theology differ from traditional Catholicism?

While Catholicism supported the status quo, liberation theology set out to change society


Who was the founding father of liberation theology?

Oscar Romero


What has the success of liberation theology led some neo-Marxists to question?

The view that religion is always a conservative force


Who believes that religion can be a revolutionary force that brings about change?

Otto Maduro


Who questions Marx's view that religion always legitimates social inequality?



What do both Maduro and Löwy see liberation theology as an example of?

Religiously inspired social change


What is an example of a desire to bring about the Kingdom of God on earth?

Millenarian movements


What are Millenarian movements based on the idea of?

Christian theology which states that Christ would come into the world for a second time and rule for a thousand years before the day of judgement and the end of the world


Who do millenarian movements appeal to and why?

The poor because they promise immediate improvement


Who is interested in how the ruling class maintain their control over society through the use of ideas rather than simply through coercion?



What term does Gramsci use that refers to the way that the ruling class are able to use ideas such as religion to maintain control?



What does Gramsci mean by hegemony?

Ideological domination or leadership of society


According to Gramsci, what can the ruling class do once hegemony is established?

They can rely on popular consent to their rule, so there is less need for coercion


What is counter-hegemony?

An alternative vision of how society should be organised, often adopted by the working class


Like Engels, what does Gramsci see religion as having?

A dual character and he notes that in some circumstances, it can challenge as well as support the ruling class


What are organic intellectuals?

People such as educators, organisers and leaders who can help workers see the situation they are in and support working class organisations such as trade unions


Who applies Gramsci's ideas in a case study comparing class struggle in two communities?

Dwight Billings


What are the two communities that Billings studied?

Coal miners and textile workers in Kentucky during the 1920s and 30s