MedSurg Mod 5: Diabetes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MedSurg Mod 5: Diabetes Deck (83)
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1

What is happening with diabetes prevalence

it is increasing among all gender and race groups

2

What sort of minority groups are disproportionately affected by diabetes

African Americans

Hispanic Americans

Pacific Islanders

Native Americans

3

Different Classifications of Diabetes

Type 1

Type 2

Gestational

LADA and MODY

Diabetes Associated with other conditions

4

MODY

Maturity onset diabetes of the young

5

LADA

latent autoimmune diabetes in the adult

6

Except in Type 1 Diabetes, what can people do with diabetes categories

move from one to another

7

If someone says a steroid caused them to have diabetes, what does that mean?

If a person had a lung disease and got steroids to decrease inflammation, the steroids will increase glucose levels and they may rise to a diabetic level

This did not cause diabetes directly but pushed the levels beyond tolerance and the person was probably close to diabetes as well

8

Why can Cystic Fibrosis cause Diabetes

clogged ducts lead to pancreatic damage which damages beta cells meaning there is no insulin made

9

S/S of Diabetes

fatigue

thirst (polydipsia)

hunger (polyphagia)

increased urinary output (polyuria)

vision changes

10

Why does vision change with diabetes?

2 reasons:

1. Fluid changes in the eye from dehydration

2. Circulating glucose is damaging the retina and structures of the eye

11

Diagnosis of diabetes involves what?

Symptoms AND any of the following:

1. RANDOM blood glc > or equal to 200 mg/dL

2. FASTING glc > or equal to 126 mg/dL

3. 2 Hour Post Prandial glc > or equal to 200 mg/dL

4. HgA1c levels >or equal to 6.5-7%

12

Why does random blood glucose not usually diagnose diabetes

it has no regard to the time of the day or meals recently eaten among other considerations

13

Which of the 4 possible diagnostic tests is the classic measure for diagnosing diabetes

Fasting Glucose

14

HgA1c

it is glucose stuck to hgb/RBC

it is being used more and more nowadays

it is a measure of how much glucose our RBC is exposed to over 3 months and we want that to be below 7%

15

Can an A1C be drawn at any time with no preparation or fasting unlike a Fasting Glucose?

yes

16

What level of HgA1c is concerning for diabetes

above 6.5-7%

17

What level of Fasting glc is concerning for diabetes

> or equal to 126

18

What are the important topics to educate the diabetic patient about

1. Self Care

2. Disease Process

3. Consequences and Complications

19

What things need to be included for education on Self care for a diabetic

1. SMBG - self monitoring blood glucose

2. foot care

3. the 3 F's

20

What are the 3 F's

Food
Fitness
Fixes (in illness)

*teach these to a diabetic*

21

What are some major consequences and complications that arise from diabetes

Cardiovascular Disease (the big one)

Nephropathy

Neuropathy

Retinopathy

22

Blood glucose over the limit regardless by how much...

it over the limit and can still cause damage - so it is important to teach people that

23

What are some options for administering insulin at home

Needle and syringe

insulin pens

jet injectors

insulin pumps

24

Jet Injectors

Puts insulin in SQ region without a needle

It is not painful but there is a sensation of jet pressured injection

25

Insulin Pump

It is not an IV, it is put in SQ tissue and insulin is given AND blood glucose levels are monitored

It attempts to mimic normal body changes and can be automatic or decided by you

26

Why is self monitoring so important in diabetes

1. Useful tool as part of diabetes management

2. Helps to detect hypoglycemia

3. helps to adjust insulin dosing

27

Freestyle Libre

one continuous glc monitoring system (like another - Dexcom G6) that uses a thin filament to measure glucose every minute - a glucose monitoring innovation

it has a sensor on the back of the arm and a handheld scanner that reads results

It requires a fingerstick for confirmation of problems though

28

What is important education to teach the diabetic patient regarding being sick or having GI illness

1. do NOT eliminate insulin doses even with N/V

2. Person should attempt small frequent portions of carbohydrates

3. Drink fluids every hour

4. Assess blood glucose every 3-4 hours

29

Why should insulin not be eliminated when sick?

because during times of stress blood glucose levels will rise even if you are not eating

30

What are the main areas of focus for diabetic foot care

1. Daily inspection and bathing of feet

2. Properly fitting shoes / podiatry (no bare feet d/t infection and wound risk)

3. toenail management (by a podiatrist)