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Psychology Test 3 > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (62)
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1

Cues

Pieces of information in the present that help us remember events from the past, and are central to remembering

2

Asking participants to recall studied information without help

Free recall

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Encoding specificity principle

A natural consequence of the importance of cues is that how we encode information affects how we are able to retrieve it

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Episodic memories

Autobiographical memories that are based on life events

5

Three memory processes

Encoding
Storage
Retrieval

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3 Stages: Atkinson Schiffrin Model

Sensory Memory to Short Term Memory to Long Term Memory

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Sensory Memory (how long)

.5-2 seconds

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Short term memory (how long)

12-18 seconds

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Sensory Memory

Stores an exact copy of incoming info for a few seconds

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Types of sensory Memory

Iconic - visual sensory images (1/2 second)
Echoic - auditory activity (2 seconds)

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Iconic memory

Type of sensory Memory
Visual sensory images
1/2 second

12

Echoic memory

Type of sensory Memory
Auditory activity
2 seconds

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Short term memory (STM)

Stores small amounts of information (12 seconds)
-selective attention
-encoded phonetically
Working memory
-like a mental "scratchpad"

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Selective attention

Focusing on a selected proportion of sensory input

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Phonetically encoded

Storing info by sound (Tim)

16

Working memory

Like a mental scratchpad
Read a book, do math, put together a puzzle

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Long term memory

Stores information relatively permanently
Stored on basis of meaning and importance
Can store nearly limitless amounts of information
Memories are encoded on the basis of meaning

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How is a STM stored

Maintenance rehearsal
Elaborative processing
Without rehearsal, information is lost from STM in 12-18 seconds

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Maintenance rehearsal

Repeating information to prolong its presence in STM (phone number)
Sensitive to interruption

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Elaborative processing

Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM

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STM Capactity

Digit span: 7 (+-2)
Information bits: meaningful units of information
Chunking

22

Redintegration

Memory reconstructed by starting with one memory
Following chains of association to related memories
-showing a picture of HS graduation
-Serves a a trigger/cue

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2 types of long term memories

Procedural memory
Declarative memory

24

Procedural memory

Type of LTM
learned actions like driving, typing, swinging a cold club (lower brain areas)

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Declarative memories (and 2 types)

Factual information like names, faces, dates, and ideas
-semantic memory
-episodic memory

26

Semantic memory

Mental dictionary of basic knowledge
Type of declarative memory
Ex. The meaning of letters, the concept of a cat, the sounds that letters make, the idea of a car, how letters put together can make a word, knowledge that Annapolis is the capital of Maryland

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Episodic memory

Autobiographical record of personal experiences
-events: what, where, who, when
-where you were and with who when you found out you got into GT, your skiing vacation last winter, the first time you traveled by airplane, your roommate from your first year of college, the details about how you learned of a relatives death

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Memories that are available but not quite retrievable

Partial memories

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Examples of partial memories

Tip of the tongue
Feeling of knowing
Deja vu (memory trace)

30

3 ways to measure memory

Recall, recognition, relearning