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1

Tissue groups

Tissue groups

  1. Epithelial tissue
  2. Connective tissue
  3. Nervous tissue
  4. Muscle tissue
  5. Fluid

2

Epithelial tissue groups

Epithelial tissue groups

  1. Simple squamous
  2. Simple cuboidal
  3. Simple columnar
  4. Simple columnar (ciliated)
  5. Stratified squamous
  6. Stratified cuboidal
  7. Stratified columnar
  8. Pseudostratified columnar

3

Muscle tissue groups

Muscle tissue groups

  1. Skeletal muscle
  2. Cardiac muscle
  3. Smooth muscle

4

Functions of skin

Functions of skin

  1. Regulating body temperature
  2. Protection
  3. Reception of stimuli
  4. Immunity

5

Major body systems

Major body systems

  1. Skeletal system
  2. Muscular system
  3. Nervous system
  4. Cardiovascular system
  5. Respiratory system
  6. Digestive system
  7. Lymphatic system
  8. Endocrine system

6

Body cavities

Body cavities

  1. Cranial cavity
  2. Thoracic cavity
  3. Abdominal and pelvic cavity

7

Regions of the abdominal and pelvic cavity

Regions of the abdominal and pelvic cavity

Right hypochondrium

Epigastrium

Left hypochondrium

Right lumbar

Umbilical

Left lumbar

Right iliac

Hypogastrium

Left iliac

8

Parts of the respiratory tract

Parts of the respiratory tract

  1. Nose or nasal cavity
  2. Pharynx
  3. Larynx
  4. Trachea
  5. Lungs
  6. Bronchi
  7. Bronchioles
  8. Alveoli
  9. Hilum
  10. Pleura

9

Pulmonary volumes

Pulmonary volumes

Average adult figures:

Alveoli volume = 350ml

Dead air space = 150ml

Tidal volume = 500ml

Minute volume = 6000ml per minute
(based on the average adult rate of 12 respirations per minute )

10

Lung capacities

Lung capacities

Inspiratory reserve = 3100ml

Tidal volume = 500ml

Expiratory reserve = 1200ml

Residual air = 1200ml

11

Breathing rates

Breathing rates

Range of rates for healthy bodies:

Infants:
32-40 respirations per minute

Child:
24-28 respirations per minute

Adult:
16-20 respirations per minute

12

Common respiratory problems

Common respiratory problems

  1. Asthma
  2. Bronchitis
  3. Pneumonia
  4. Emphysema
  5. Pulmonary embolism
  6. Pneumothorax
  7. Tension pneumothorax
  8. Hypoxia

13

Neuroglia

Neuroglia

  1. Myelin sheath
  2. Neurilemma
  3. Schwann cell

14

Parts of the central nervous system

Parts of the central nervous system

  1. Brain
  2. Spinal cord
  3. Meninges

15

Types of neurone

Types of neurone

  1. Unipolar neurones
  2. Bipolar neurones
  3. Multipolar neurones
  4. Association neurones

16

Parts of the brain

Parts of the brain

  1. Cerebrum
  2. Cerebellum
  3. Brain stem
  4. Diencephalon

17

Types of meninges

Types of meninges

  1. Dura mater
  2. Arachnoid mater
  3. Pia mater

18

Types of head injury

Types of head injury

  1. Concussion
  2. Compression
  3. Contra coup
  4. Haemorrhage
  5. Lucid interval
  6. Shock

19

Epilepsy categories

Epilepsy categories

  1. Petit mal
  2. Grand mal
  3. Status epilepticus

20

Relevant sections of the Mental Health Act

Relevant sections of the Mental Health Act

Section 2
Admission for 28 days of assessment and treatment.

Section 3
Admission for 6 months of treatment.

Section 4
Emergency admission for 72 hours of assessment.

Section 131
Informal or voluntary admission.

Section 135
Place of safety order (private place).

Section 136
Place of safety order (public place).

21

Bone classifications

Bone classifications

Long

Short

Irregular

Flat

Sesamoid

22

Sections of the axial skeleton (3

Sections of the axial skeleton (3

Skull split in  to 2

Cranium

2 parietal bones

2 temporal bones

1 occipital bone

1 frontal bone

1 sphenoidal bone

1 ethmoidal bone

Facial bones

2 nasal bones

2 palatine bones

2 lacrimal bones

2 inferior nasal conchae

2 zygoma bones

2 maxilla bones

Mandible

Vomer

 

 

Vertebral column

7 cervical vertebrae

12 thoracic vertebrae

5 lumbar vertebrae

5 sacral vertebrae (the sacrum)

4 coccygeal vertebrae (the coccyx)

Thoracic cage

7 true ribs

2 false ribs

3 floating ribs

 

23

Sections of the appendicular skeleton (3)

Sections of the appendicular skeleton (3)

  • Shoulder girdle

Clavicle 

Scapula

Humerus 

Radius

Ulna

Wrist

8 carpal bones:

Scaphoid

Pisiform

Capitate

Lunate

Triguetral

Trapezium

Hamate

Trapezoid

5 metacarpal bones (I-V)

14 phalanges

  • Pelvic girdle

Ilium

Ischium 

Pub

  • Lower limbs

Femur

Patella

Tibia

Fibula

Ankle

7 tarsals:

Talus 

Cuboid

Navicular

Calcaneus

Cuneiform medial

Cuneiform intermedial

Cuneiform lateral

5 metatarsals (I-V)

14 phalanges

 

 

24

Types of joints

Types of joints

  1. Immovable joints (fibrous)
  2. Slightly movable joints (cartilaginous)
  3. Freely movable joints (synovial)

25

Types of synovial joint

Types of synovial joint

  1. Ball and socket
  2. Hinge joint
  3. Double hinge
  4. Gliding joint
  5. Pivot joints

26

Types of fracture

Types of fracture

Simple (closed)

Compound (open)

Comminuted

Greenstick

Impacted


 

Complicated

27

Causes of fracture

Causes of fracture

  1. Transverse
  2. Oblique
  3. Spiral
  4. Depressed
  5. Pathological

28

Constituents of blood

Constituents of blood

Fluid:

Plasma
 

Solids:

Red blood cells

White blood cells

Platelets

29

Blood vessels

Blood vessels

Arterial system: (blood from the heart)

Arteries

Arterioles

Capillaries
 

Venous sytem: (blood to the heart)

Capillaries

Venules

Veins

30

Parts of the circulatory system

Parts of the circulatory system

  1. Systemic circulation
  2. Pulmonary circulation
  3. Portal circulation
  4. Circulation through the heart

31

Pulse points

Pulse points

  1. Radial - the wrist
  2. Brachial - inside of the elbow
  3. Carotid - sides of the neck
  4. Pedal - front of the foot

32

Types of wound

Types of wound

  1. Incised
  2. Lacerated
  3. Abrasion
  4. Contusion
  5. Puncture
  6. Gunshot

33

Types of shock

Types of shock

  1. Cardiogenic shock
  2. Hypovolaemic shock
  3. Anaphylactic shock

34

Cardiac connditions

Cardiac connditions

Angina pectoris

Myocardial infarct

Left ventricular failure

35

Amino acids

Amino acids

  1. Arginine
  2. Lysine
  3. Tryptophan
  4. Histidine
  5. Methionine
  6. Leucine
  7. Phenylalanine
  8. Isoleucine

36

Minerals

Minerals

Calcium

Magnesium

Fluorine

Phosphorus

Iron 

Potassium

Iodine

Sodium

37

Essential vitamins (2 groups

Fat soluble vitamins

  1. A
  2. D
  3. E
  4. K

Water soluble vitamins

B 1

B 2

B 3

B 6

B 12

Folic acid

Pantothenic acid

C

38

Digestive processes

Digestive processes

  1. Ingestion
  2. Movement
  3. Digestion
  4. Absorption
  5. Defecation

39

Parts of the alimentary tract

Parts of the alimentary tract

  1. Mouth
  2. Pharynx
  3. Oesophagus
  4. Stomach
  5. Duodenum
  6. Jejunum and ileum
  7. Large intestine
  8. Peritoneum

40

Types of poison

Types of poison

  1. Burning or corrosive
  2. Non-burning
  3. Industrial
  4. Irritants

41

Common poisons

Common poisons

  1. Acetaminophen
  2. Acetylsalicylic acid
  3. Amphetamines
  4. Barbituates
  5. Cyanide
  6. Narcotics
  7. Solvents
  8. Hallucinogens

42

Burn classifcations

Burn classifcations

  • Partial thickness
  1. Superficial
  2. Deep
     
  • Full thickness

43

Rule of nines

Rule of nines

Adult:

  1. Head and neck = 9%
  2. Front of trunk = 18%
  3. Back of trunk = 18%
  4. Leg = 18%
  5. Arm = 9%
  6. Genitalia = 1%

Child:

  1. Head and neck = 18%
  2. Front of trunk = 18%
  3. Back of trunk = 18%
  4. Leg = 14%
  5. Arm = 9%
  6. Genitalia = 1%

44

Body temperature conditions

Body temperature conditions

  1. Hypothermia
  2. Hyperthermia

45

Category I diseases

Category I

  1. Leprosy
  2. Influenza
  3. Whooping cough
  4. Legionaires disease
  5. Glandular fever
  6. Malaria
  7. Tetanus
  8. Scabies
  9. Erysipelas
  10. Leptospirosis
  11. Ophthalmia neonatorum

46

Category II diseases

Category II

  1. Anthrax
  2. Measles
  3. Cholera
  4. Rubella
  5. Meningitis
  6. Hepatitis B
  7. Food poisoning
  8. Gastroenteritis
  9. Tuberculosis
  10. Infestations
  11. Chickenpox
  12. Diphtheria
  13. Dysentery
  14. Typhus
  15. Shingles
  16. Mumps
  17. Encephalitis
  18. Poliomyelitis

47

Category III diseases

Category III

  1. Smallpox
  2. Marburgh
  3. Rabies
  4. Lassa fever
  5. Ebola
  6. Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF

48

Methods to clear obstructed airways

Methods to clear obstructed airways

  1. Finger sweep
  2. Back slaps
  3. Head and neck tilt
  4. Abdominal thrusts

49

Steps to primary survey

Steps to primary survey

A: Airway

B: Breathing

C: Circulation

50

Steps to secondary survey

Steps to secondary survey

  1. Head
  2. Eyes
  3. Head orifices
  4. Respirations
  5. Pulse
  6. Shoulders
  7. Trunk
  8. Arms
  9. Pelvis
  10. Legs
  11. Spine

51

Categories of the glasgow coma scale

Categories of the glasgow coma scale

  1. Eye response
  2. Motor response
  3. Verbal response

52

Assessing lifts

Assessing lifts

Task

Individual capacity

Load

Environment

Other

53

Major incident designated officers

Major incident designated officers

  1. Incident officer
  2. Liaison officer
  3. Parking officer
  4. Casualty clearing officer
  5. Loading officer

54

Parts of the female reproductive system

Parts of the female reproductive system

Uterus

  • Fundus
  • Body
  • Cervix

Ovaries

Fallopian tubes

Vagina

55

Stages of childbirth

Stages of childbirth

Stage I
Lasts up to 14 hours
Mucous plug released
Contractions every 15-20 mins

Stage II
"Breaking of the waters"
Fully dilated cervix
Contractions every three mins
Crowning is seen

Stage III
Actual birth
Delivery of the placenta

56

Foetal presentations

Foetal presentations

  1. Normal presentation - left or right-occipito anterior (head down presentation)
  2. Malpresentation - right and left-occipito posterior (head down presentation)
  3. Breech presentation - buttock presentation
  4. Face presentation - head down presentation of face and NOT occipital bone
  5. Brow presentation - widest part of skull presents
  6. Transverse lie - no presenting part

57

Pregnancy related haemorrhages

Pregnancy related haemorrhages

Antepartum haemorrhage

  • Accidental haemorrhage
  • Unavoidable haemorrhage
  • Abortion
     

Postpartum haemorrhage

Traumatic haemorrhage 

58

59

Categories of child abuse

Categories of child abuse

  1. Physical abuse
  2. Sexual abuse
  3. Mental cruelty

60

Common illnesses in old age

Common illnesses in old age

Parkinson's disease

CVA - cerebrovascular accident

61