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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (69):
1

How many types of bones are they

5

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2

Give examples of different bones

1 long bones (eg leg and arm bones) 2 Short bones (eg wrist and ankle bones) 3 Flat bones (eg bones of the skull) 4 irregular bones (eg spinal bones) 5 sesamoid bones (eg knee cap)

3

How many functions of the skeleton

5

4

List the function of the skeleton

1 enables movement for the body at the joints 2 affords attachment for muscles, ligaments and tendons 3 Gives the body its shape and posture 4 Provides protection for the vital organs 5 blood cells and platelets are also produced in the red bone marrow of some bones

5

The skeletal system comprises of how many bones

206

6

Bones what is Diaphysis


The shaft or long main portion of the bone.


 

 

7

Bones what is Epiphyses

Epiphyses
The extremities or ends of the bones.


 

 

8

Bones what is Epiphyseal cartilage

Epiphyseal cartilage
Junction in a growing bone between the shaft and the extremity where growth takes place.


 

 

9

Bones what is Volkmann's canals

Volkmann's canals
Penetrative canal through the shaft of a bone. Entry point for blood vessels and nerves etc.


 

 

10

Bones what is Haversian canals

Haversian canals
Microscopic canals that run longitudinally within the centre of mature compact bone, to accommodate blood vessels and nerves.


 

 

11

Bones what is Osteocytes

Osteocytes
Bone development cells, divided into two main types; osteoclasts that shape bone and osteoblasts that make bone.


 

 

12

Bones what is Medullary cavity (marrow cavity)

Medullary cavity (marrow cavity)
Space within the diaphysis containing fatty bone marrow.


 

 

13

Bones what is Periosteum

Periosteum
A dense white fibrous covering around the surface of a bone. Important for the health and repair of the bone.


 

 

14

Bones what is Chondrocytes

Chondrocytes
Cartilage producing cells.


 

 

15

bones what are sutures

Sutures
An immovable fibrous joint between bones, eg the bones of the skull.

16

two types of bone

Compact

This bone tissue appears to be solid but under a microscope you can see that small perforating canals (volkmann's canals) penetrate the surface and join up with longitudinal canals running the length of the bone (haversian canals).

Both contain blood and lymph vessels and nerves.

Cancellous

To the naked eye this type of bone tissue looks to be spongy and under a microscope the haversian canals are much bigger than in compact tissue , giving it a honeycomb appearance.

Some of this honeycomb is filled with red bone marrow, the cells of which are responsible for producing blood cells.

17

What is bone made up of?

20% water

30%-40% organic material

40%-50% inorganic material

18

This transformation process bone is called

ossification.

Special types of cells are developed, which in later stages harden into a tissue called cartilage. This in turn hardens further to become bone. This transformation process is called ossification.

19

Each tissue destined to become a bone has a centre of ossification containing bone-producing cells called -------------. These secrete a collagenous substance that forms strands to trap calcium salts and convert the tissue to bone

Each tissue destined to become a bone has a centre of ossification containing bone-producing cells called osteoblasts. These secrete a collagenous substance that forms strands to trap calcium salts and convert the tissue to bone

20

Another type of bone cell, --------------, are responsible for giving a particular bone its characteristic shape

Another type of bone cell, osteoclasts, are responsible for giving a particular bone its characteristic shape

21

Describe Flat Bones

Flat bones

These bones are made up of two layers of compact bone with a thin layer of cancellous tissue between. They offer protection and have a large surface area to afford attachment for muscles.

Flat bones are developed from certain membranes and examples are the bones of the skull and the pelvic bones.

22

Discribe Irregular bones

Irregular bones

These types of bone are similar to short bones but are much more intricate in shape.

This type of bone is developed from cartilage tissue and examples are the spinal vertebrae and the facial bones.

23

Discribe short bones

Short bones

Made up of smaller masses of cancellous tissue surrounded by a layer of compact bone. Short bones have no shaft to speak of.

This type of bone is developed from cartilage tissue and examples are the bones of the hands and feet.

24

Discribe long bones

Long bones

Made up of an elongated shaft or diaphysis of compact bone, with two extremities (epiphyses) made mostly of cancellous tissue surrounded by compact bone.

This type of bone is developed from cartilage tissue and examples include the bones of the arms and legs.

25

Discribe Sesamoid bones

Sesamoid bones

These are the smallest classification of bones and are developed within tendons. They are also called floating bones because they appear not to be attached to any firm structure.

The most obvious example is the knee cap

26

What is the axial skeleton?

 

What is the axial skeleton?

The axial portion of the skeleton is made up of the skull, vertebral column, ribs and sternum. Together they form the central bone core of the body.

27

how many areas does Axial skeleton

3

28

The Vertebral

The vertebral column supports the skull and gives attachment to the ribs. It is formed from 33 irregular bones called vertebrae. The vertebrae are separated by intervertebral discs of fibrocartilage, which not only allow movements of the column, but also act as shock absorbers and prevent friction between the vertebrae.

The vertebral column can be divided into five different groups of bones:

seven cervical vertebrae

12 thoracic vertebrae

five lumbar vertebrae

five sacral vertebrae (fused together to form the sacrum)

four coccygeal vertebrae (fused together to form the coccyx)

The first two cervical vertebrae are called the atlas (first) and axis (second) vertebrae. These two vertebrae form the pivot point for the skull.

The vertebral column has a central canal running through its length, in which the spinal cord is housed. Pairs of spinal nerves emanate from the cord at each corresponding vertebra, through holes called intervertebral foramina.

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29

The Skull is divided in to how many

Skull

The skull is divided into two sections

cranium

facial bones

30

Cranium is made up of how many bones

Cranium

The cranium is made up of eight bones, all joined together by fibrous immovable joints called sutures.

The eight bones are:

  1. two parietal bones
  2. two temporal bones
  3. one occipital bone
  4. one frontal bone
  5. one sphenoidal bone
  6. one ethmoidal bone

When you are born the sutures are still soft cartilage tissue that hardens over time. So too are the soft areas at which more than three cranial bones meet, areas known as fontanels. There are several fontanels, but the major two are:

Posterior fontanel
Where the occipital bone and the two parietal bones meet

Anterior fontanel
Where the frontal bone and the two parietal bones meet

In new born babies the frontal bone is in fact two bones joined by a suture, but this joint usually disappears by the age of six.

 

 

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31

The cranium is made up of -------- bones, all joined together by ---------- immovable joints called -----------.

The cranium is made up of eight bones, all joined together by fibrous immovable joints called sutures.

32

Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum)

The thoracic cage is made up of the sternum (breast bone) on the anterior aspect and the spine on the posterior aspect.

There are -- pairs of ribs that encircle the thoracic cavity. All -- are joined to the spine but only the superior ------ pairs are directly attached to the sternum, these are called the true ribs.

The next three pairs are attached indirectly to the sternum via the costal cartilages and are called false ribs.

The remaining two pairs are called floating ribs because they have no anterior attachment at all.

The thoracic cage encases and protects vital thoracic organs (heart and lungs) and forms the mechanical wherewithal in the process of breathing and respiratory movement.

Thoracic cage (ribs and sternum)

The thoracic cage is made up of the sternum (breast bone) on the anterior aspect and the spine on the posterior aspect.

There are 12 pairs of ribs that encircle the thoracic cavity. All 12 are joined to the spine but only the superior seven pairs are directly attached to the sternum, these are called the true ribs.

The next three pairs are attached indirectly to the sternum via the costal cartilages and are called false ribs.

The remaining two pairs are called floating ribs because they have no anterior attachment at all.

The thoracic cage encases and protects vital thoracic organs (heart and lungs) and forms the mechanical wherewithal in the process of breathing and respiratory movement.

33

What is the appendicular skeleton how many parts

3

shoulder girdle

Pelvic girdle

lower limbs

34

shoulder girdel

Shoulder girdle

The bones of the shoulder girdle are as follows:

  1. Clavicle 
  2. Scapula
  3. Humerus
  4. (All the three bones above join at the glenoidal cavity)
  5. Radius
  6. Ulna
  7. The olecranon of the ulna forms the prominence of the elbow.
  8. The carpal bones of the wrist are:
  9. Scaphoid
  10. Pisiform
  11. Capitate
  12. Lunate
  13. Triguetral
  14. Trapezium
  15. Hamate
  16. Trapezoid
  17. There are five metacarpal bones numbered I-V and 14 phalanges.  A fracture of the radius and ulna is called a colles fracture

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35

pelvic girdle

Pelvic girdle

The pelvic girdle and the sacrum make up the pelvis. The bones are:

Ilium

Ischium 

Pubis

A fracture of the pelvis is called a book fracture

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36

lower Limbs

Lower limbs

The bones of the lower limbs are as follows:

  1. Femur
  2. (largest bone in the body, articulates with the pelvis at the acetabulum)
  3. Patella
  4. Tibia
  5. (commonly called the shin bone)
  6. Fibula
  7. The names of the tarsals of the ankle are:
  8. Talus 
  9. Cuboid
  10. Navicular
  11. Calcaneus
  12. Cuneiform medial
  13. Cuneiform intermedial
  14. Cuneiform lateral
  15. There are five metatarsals numbered I-V and 14 phalanges.
  16. A fracture of the ankle is called a potts fracture.

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37

The term joint applies to

The term joint applies to a point where two or more bones meet or where movement occurs between bones. It is not however, a point where movement necessarily takes place

38

There are how many main types of joint:

There are three main types of joint:

39

There are three main types of joint:

Immovable joints (fibrous)
These joints have fibrous tissue joining them together and do not normally allow movement, eg the cranial bones.

Slightly movable joints (cartilaginous)
These joints have a pad of white fibrocartilage between the connecting bones. This allows for slight movement, eg the vertebral bones.

Freely movable joints (synovial)
This is the largest group of joints within the body. They can be further divided into five categories, but all five have several similarities.

There are certain structures associated with joints, either in holding them together, or in creating movement at the site of the joint.

40

Discribe Immovable joints
 

Immovable joints (fibrous)
These joints have fibrous tissue joining them together and do not normally allow movement, eg the cranial bones.

41

Describe Slightly movable joints

Slightly movable joints (cartilaginous)
These joints have a pad of white fibrocartilage between the connecting bones. This allows for slight movement, eg the vertebral bones.

42

Describe Freely movable joints

Freely movable joints (synovial)
This is the largest group of joints within the body. They can be further divided into five categories, but all five have several similarities. Find out more in the Resource Centre.

There are certain structures associated with joints, either in holding them together, or in creating movement at the site of the joint

43

A fracture is said to be what

A fracture is said to be a "break in the continuity of a bone". All fractures, no matter where they are in the body will show similar symptoms

44

how many types of fracture

name them

Types of fracture 6

Simple (closed)

This is a simple break in the bone, unconnected with any external wound.

Compound (open)

This is a break in the bone, which results in the broken ends of the bone protruding through the skin forming an open wound. This type of fracture is more difficult to treat, not only because the fracture itself is more severe, but also because of the risk of infection through the open wound.

Comminuted

This type of fracture occurs when the bone breaks into more than two pieces or fragments. It can occasionally heal poorly when bone fragments take a long time to reunite properly.

Greenstick

This occurs when a bone is only fractured half way through and tends to bend as well as break, very like a fresh green twig. This type of fracture usually happens to young children whose bones have not yet hardened properly.

Impacted

This happens when one piece of broken bone gets forced into another.

Complicated

This type of fracture occurs when the fracture is combined with, or causes injury to an underlying structure. The underlying structure may be a major blood vessel, nerve or organ, for example severely fractured ribs may cause damage to the lungs or heart impairing their function.

45

Describe Simple Fracture

Simple (closed)

This is a simple break in the bone, unconnected with any external wound

46

Describe compound fracture

Compound (open)

This is a break in the bone, which results in the broken ends of the bone protruding through the skin forming an open wound. This type of fracture is more difficult to treat, not only because the fracture itself is more severe, but also because of the risk of infection through the open wound.

 

47

Describe comminuted fracture

Comminuted

This type of fracture occurs when the bone breaks into more than two pieces or fragments. It can occasionally heal poorly when bone fragments take a long time to reunite properly.

 

48

Describe Greenstick fracture

Greenstick

This occurs when a bone is only fractured half way through and tends to bend as well as break, very like a fresh green twig. This type of fracture usually happens to young children whose bones have not yet hardened properly.

 

49

Describe Impacted fracture

Impacted

This happens when one piece of broken bone gets forced into another.

 

50

Describe complicated fracture

Complicated

This type of fracture occurs when the fracture is combined with, or causes injury to an underlying structure. The underlying structure may be a major blood vessel, nerve or organ, for example severely fractured ribs may cause damage to the lungs or heart impairing their function.

51

There are how many main causes of fracture:

list

Causes of fractures

There are five main causes of fracture:

Transverse - direct trauma at the site of injury

Oblique - indirect violence, eg a fractured clavicle (collar bone) from putting out a hand to stop oneself falling. The force is transferred up the arm and the weakest point, the clavicle, is fractured

Spiral - violent rotation of a limb

Depressed - in the skull when the fractured bone is pressed inwards

Pathological  - from disease or old age; takes the form of either brittle bones or unexplained fractures

 

52

Describe   Transverse  fracture

Transverse - direct trauma at the site of injury

 

53

Describe Oblique fracture

Oblique - indirect violence, eg a fractured clavicle (collar bone) from putting out a hand to stop oneself falling. The force is transferred up the arm and the weakest point, the clavicle, is fractured

 

54

Describe spiral fracture

Spiral - violent rotation of a limb

 

55

Describe depressed fracture

Depressed - in the skull when the fractured bone is pressed inwards

 

56

describe pathological fracture

Pathological  - from disease or old age; takes the form of either brittle bones or unexplained fractures

57

Treatment of fractures

 

Reassurance

A cool calm approach is essential, especially when dealing with children. The patient will usually be supporting the fracture in the most comfortable position, but it is useful to explain that reducing the fracture would take some of the pain away. Always tell the patient exactly what you intend to do before you do it and never lie to the patient especially about how much it will hurt.

Immobilisation
When attempting to immobilise a fracture you should try to immobilise the joint above and below the fracture site too. This might not always be possible but the more widely the fracture is immobilised the less pain. Immobilisation also prevents the fracture becoming any worse and lessens the chances of the bone ends causing further damage to surrounding structures, or breaking through the skin. Poor handling may very well result in any of the above complications.

Analgesia
Administration of entonox gas or drug analgesia as per individual service policy may indicate usage, but it must be stressed that pain relief brought about by analgesia is not an excuse for rough or clumsy handling.

Pulses
It is imperative to check that a palpable pulse is recorded both proximal and distal to the site of the fracture before and after immobilisation and during the journey to hospital

58

Dislocations

A dislocation can give all the signs and symptoms of a ---- ? and may indeed be associated with a -----   ?.

 

Dislocations

A dislocation can give all the signs and symptoms of a fracture and may indeed be associated with a fracture.

It is actually a displacement of the bones associated with a joint. For example a dislocated shoulder would entail the ball of the humerus slipping out of the glenoidal cavity of the scapula .

Treatment of dislocations is very similar to that of fractures, but no attempt should be made to reduce or straighten the injury and immobilisation will often have to be improvised to maintain the position of the injury.

59

Sprains and strains

A sprain is an injury to a-------------at the site of a joint and is most commonly caused by a wrenching of the joint, resulting in the -------------- being torn from the surrounding tissues.

 

 

Sprains and strains

A sprain is an injury to a ligament at the site of a joint and is most commonly caused by a wrenching of the joint, resulting in the ligament being torn from the surrounding tissues.

A strain is an injury to a tendon or muscle and is caused by over-stretching or over-exertion resulting in the tendon or muscle being torn.

The basic treatment for sprains and strains is similar to that of fractures, but these injuries are associated with a great deal of swelling and if possible a cold compress should be applied to the injury site, along with plenty of padding applied firmly. The use of Entonox gas, for pain relief, may be indicated

60

Synovial joints

All synovial joints have certain characteristics

Synovial joints

All synovial joints have certain characteristics:

Articular cartilage
A layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the parts of the bones that actually come into contact with each other. This provides a smooth surface but is also strong enough to be weight bearing.
Capsular ligament
The joint is enveloped by a layer of fibrous tissue that holds the bones together, it is loose enough to allow movement, but is

strong enough to afford protection.

Synovial membrane

This is made up of epithelial cells that secrete synovial fluid. It acts as a lubricant, provides nourishment for the structures within the joint cavity and helps stability. It also prevents the ends of the jointed bones from separating. Synovial membranes can be found lining the capsular ligament and enveloping parts of the bone within the joint capsule not covered by hyaline cartilage.

Extracapsular structures
Most joints contain ligaments that blend with the capsule and provide extra stability.

 

61

There are how many types of synovial joints

There are five types of synovial joints:

Ball and socket - allows free movement in all directions, eg hip and shoulder joints.

Hinge joint - allows for flexion and extension in one direction only, eg elbow and knee joints.

Double hinge - allows movement in two directions, eg mandible.

Gliding joint - movement is restricted to a gliding motion between connecting surfaces, eg joints of the wrist and ankle.

Pivot joints - allows for rotational movement, eg rotation of the radius and ulna bones.

62

name different types synovial joints

There are five types of synovial joints

Ball and socket - allows free movement in all directions, eg hip and shoulder joints.

Hinge joint - allows for flexion and extension in one direction only, eg elbow and knee joints.

Double hinge - allows movement in two directions, eg mandible.

Gliding joint - movement is restricted to a gliding motion between connecting surfaces, eg joints of the wrist and ankle.

Pivot joints - allows for rotational movement, eg rotation of the radius and ulna bones.

63

Describe Articular cartilage
 

All synovial joints have certain characteristics:

Articular cartilage
A layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the parts of the bones that actually come into contact with each other. This provides a smooth surface but is also strong enough to be weight bearing.

 

64

Describe Capsular ligament

Capsular ligament
The joint is enveloped by a layer of fibrous tissue that holds the bones together, it is loose enough to allow movement, but is strong enough to afford protection.

 

65

Describe Synovial membrane

Synovial membrane
This is made up of epithelial cells that secrete synovial fluid. It acts as a lubricant, provides nourishment for the structures within the joint cavity and helps stability. It also prevents the ends of the jointed bones from separating. Synovial membranes can be found lining the capsular ligament and enveloping parts of the bone within the joint capsule not covered by hyaline cartilage.

 

66

Describe Extracapsular structures
 

Extracapsular structures
Most joints contain ligaments that blend with the capsule and provide extra stability.

67

Describe the main structures associated with the construction and movement of a joint

Joint structures

Skeletal muscles
There are three types of muscle within the body, cardiac, visceral and skeletal. Skeletal is the only form of muscle that produces movement at a given joint.

Skeletal muscle accounts for approximately half of total body weight and is either striated or striped in construction. Anatomically these cells lie in parallel bands of tissue, which due to the presence of proteins called myofilaments appear as alternating light and dark strips.

The control of skeletal muscle is brought about by close integration of the muscular and skeletal systems and the nervous system. It is energised by nervous impulses being sent via the spinal cord to the peripheral nerve fibres. Put simply, muscles contract in response to nerve stimulus, to create movement.

Ligament
This is a tough band of fibrous tissue that connects one bone to another at the site of a joint. Most ligaments connect just two bones and they form at any point where the joint has a tendency to pull apart.

The size of the force trying to pull the joint apart will dictate the size and strength of the ligament. A major example would be the ligamentum flavum of the back bone. This is the term used for the numerous bands of fibrous tissue, which attach each vertebra to the next and help to keep the body upright.

Tendons
These are cords of fibrous tissue by which muscle is attached to bone, or other structures. Unlike ligaments, tendons are virtually inextensible and are made up of parallel lengths of collagen fibres, separated by thin layers of fibrous and fatty tissue in which small blood vessels and nerves run. Their function is to transmit movement from muscle to bone, especially when the direction of pull is variable as at the site of a joint.

The largest and strongest tendon is the Achilles, which is sited at the posterior of the calf and joins the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles to the heel of the foot.

68

how many structures associated with joint structures

Joint structures

Skeletal muscles

 

Ligament

 

Tendons

.

69