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Flashcards in Respiratory system Deck (59):
1

Main purpose of the respiratory system

Supply itself with oxygenRemove waste products

2

4 main functions of the respiratory system

To Extract oxygen from atmosphere

To excrete water vapour and carbon dioxide

To maintain the normal acid base balance of the blood

To ventilate the lungs

3

Inspired Air The components are

Oxygen=20%Nitrogen=79%Inert gases=1%Carbon dioxide=0.04%Water vapour = variable

4

Expired AirThe components are of expired air

Oxygen 16%Nitrogen 79%Inert gases 1%Carbon dioxide 4%Water vapour to saturation

5

Function of the nose 5

To warm the airTo filter the airTo moisten the airTo assist in resonating soundOrgan of the sense of smell

6

Function of the larynx

To provide a passageway for air from the pharynx to the trachea

To continue to moisten

,To warmTo filter the air

To produce sounds

To protect the airway during the act of swallowing food

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Structure of the pharynx

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Pharynx is funnel shaped tube 13cm long composed of skeletal muscleCan be divided into three sectionsNaso-pharynxOro-PharynxLaryngo-Pharynx

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8

Function of the Pharynx

Respiratory functionDigestive functionAssist with the sense of tasteTonsils assist in the fight against infection

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9

what is this 

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Larynx

10

Pic lungs label

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  1 epiglottis 

 2 thyroid cartilage

3 cricoid cartilage 

 4 trachea

5 left lung ( superior lobe/apex)

 6 bronchiole

  7 left primary bronchus 

 8 secondary bronchus 

  9 right primary bronchus 

  10 tertiary bronchus 

 11/17 mediastinum 

  12 parietal pleura 

   13pleural cavity 

   14 visceral pleura 

  15 left lung (inferior lobe)

    16 diaphragm

   18 mediastinal surface

  19 cardiac notch 

  20 diaphragmatic surface 

  21 right lung (superior lobe )

  22 right lung (middle lobe ) 

   23 right lung inferior lobe                                                               

11

Structure of the trachea

16-20 c-shaped incomplete rings of cartilageApproximately 12cm long

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12

Functions of the trachea

Maintain airway normal and forced respirationAllowed distension of oesophagus during the act of swallowingTo remove dust by the secretions of the goblet Reflex centre for coughing at the bifurcation of the trachea carina

13

Bronchi what are they

The two bronchi are formed the trachea divides at the carina

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14

The right bronchus is

The right bronchus is wider and shorter than the left after entering the right lung it divides into three branches on to each lobe

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15

The left bronchus is

The left bronchus is longer and narrower than the right 5cm after it enters the lung divides into two branches one to each lobe

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16

Smaller air passages 4

Terminal bronchiolesRespiratory bronchiolesAlveolarAlveoli

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Structure of the lungs

Right side three lobesLeft side two lobes

18

The pleura is

The pleura is a serous membrane that surrounds each lung Has two layers

19

Chemical control of respiration Normal drive is driven

In normal healthy people the basic drive to breathe is high levels of C02Basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by parts of the CNS

20

Hypoxic Drive

Patients with copd the C02 chemoreceptors become worn out, The stimulus for this type of patient becomes low concentrations of O2 and is termed the hypoxic drive

21

Mechanism of external respiration

Inspiratory phase 2sec active stageExpiratory phase 3 Sec passive stageRespiratory pause phase 0.25

22

Factors that can decrease breathing rates

Head injuryCvaDrugs heroin opiates methadone barbiturates

23

what is this

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pharynx 

24

what is this

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trachea

25

what is this

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larynx

26

Oxygen is taken to the lungs and exchanged at which point in the lungs

Alveoli

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27

All cells of the body requires what? And what is a by product of this

oxygen by product CO2 and other waste

28

Triangular shaped depression in each lung is called what?

Hilum

29

Triangular shaped depression in each lung is called Hilum major structures that enter here and leave here 4/3

Enter Main bronchi

Pulmonary artery

Bronchial artery

Branches of the vagus nerve

Leave

Four pulmonary veins

The bronchial veins

Lymphatic vessels

30

Normal breathing only what will contract

Diaphragm

31

When taking slight exercise what muscles will be activated

Intercostal

32

In deep breath or heavy exercise or obstruction airway what muscle are used and called what

Neck and shoulder muscles accessory muscles

33

Respiratory centre is located where and called what

Brain

Medulla oblongate

34

The medulla oblongata can be stimulated by how many things

3

35

The medulla oblongata can be stimulated by 3 things what are they

Nervous control normal breathing

Chemical control. Chemical imbalance co2 acid base pH

Higher centres Talking singing swallowing or coughing

36

Normal acid base for blood is

pH 7.4 slightly alkaline

37

To much carbon dioxide causes what

Acid level to rise

38

The chemoreceptors are found where

In walls major vessels aorta,carotid bodies the medulla oblongata

39

Nerve impulses sent from respiratory centre via what nerve ? Causing them to do what

Phrenic

Contract faster and more forcefully

40

Breathing rates Healthy infants Healthy child. Healthy adult.

Breathing rates

Healthy infants 32-40 resps per min

Healthy child. 24-28 resps per min

Healthy adult. 16-20 resps per min

41

Pulmonary volumes Alveoli volume Dead air Tidal

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Picture

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42

Lung capacity Inspiratory reserve forced inhalation Tidal Expiratory forced expiration Residual air

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43

The exchange of oxygen for carbon dioxide is termed what

Gas exchange

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44

Common respiratory problems

Pulmonary embolism

Pneumothorax and Tension pneumothorax

Pneumonia

Hypoxia

Emphysema

Bronchitis

Asthma

45

A pulmonary embolism refers to a blood clot or some other foreign substance having become trapped in a pulmonary arterial vessel

signs and symptoms

Pulmonary embolism

Signs and symptoms include:

Sudden dyspnoea (difficulty breathing)

Sharp chest pain

Tachypnoea (increased respiratory rate)

Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)

Low blood pressure

Distension of the neck veins

Syncope (fainting)

46

what are most pulmonary embolism are caused by what and also be caused by what else

Most pulmonary emboli are caused by deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs but it can also be a result of post operative trauma, heart disease, obesity, pregnancy or oral contraception

47

Pneumothorax, or air in the pleural cavity , is usually caused by one of two ways:

 

 

The lung tissue becomes damaged or ruptured allowing air to enter the pleural cavity

The chest is injured externally causing a sucking wound, drawing air into the pleural cavity.

48

Pneumothorax can occasionally happen spontaneously, most frequently seen in tall thin young males. The net result however will be a collapsed lung and a much-reduced oxygen intake for the patient. As with all wounds to the body, you will usually see blood

name signs and symptoms

Air in the pleural cavity will cause the underlying lung to become compressed and normal expansion becomes very difficult.

. Blood that enters the pleural cavity is termed haemothorax and will have the same consequences for the patient as a pneumothorax.

Signs and symptoms include:

Extreme chest pain (sometimes sudden)

Dyspnoea (difficulty breathing)

Coughing (sometimes blood stained)

Possible external injury

Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)

Tachypnoea (increased respiratory rate)

49

Pneumonia is brought about by an acute infection and inflammation of the alveoli. The alveoli gradually fill up with fluid and dead white blood cells, in the form of pus and oedema .

This build up of fluid increases the distance through which oxygen and carbon dioxide must diffuse (move) across the alveoli membrane. This increases the time needed for diffusion so that oxygen levels within the blood drop, resulting in hypoxia and consequently a fall in the level of consciousness of the patient. Carbon dioxide diffuses slightly easier than oxygen so blood levels of carbon dioxide stay fairly normal.

Pneumonia is one of the most common causes of death by infection in the UK and is caused by many different organisms

.list signs and symptoms

Pneumonia

 

Signs and symptoms are:

Weakness

Productive cough

Fever

Chest pain on coughing

Some respiratory distress

Orthopnoea (difficulty breathing while lying down)

50

Hypoxia

Stimulation for the respiratory centre comes from the  chemoreceptors in the major vessels and the medulla oblongata. Under normal circumstances these receptors measure the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood or the pH acid base. Too high an acid level and the receptors will stimulate the respiratory centre to respond.

In chronic conditions like bronchitis, these chemoreceptors cease to function properly due to the abnormally high amount of carbon dioxide or acid that is present.

Under these conditions the chemoreceptors change roles and measure the decreasing oxygen content of the blood instead. The decreasing level of oxygen then becomes the stimulus for the respiratory centre - this condition is referred to as hypoxic drive.

In this situation giving a patient oxygen by face mask may increase the level of oxygen in the blood, which will actually reduce their hypoxic drive for respiration. This reduces the stimulus for the patient to breathe, making their condition worse

Hypoxia

Stimulation for the respiratory centre comes from the  chemoreceptors in the major vessels and the medulla oblongata. Under normal circumstances these receptors measure the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood or the pH acid base. Too high an acid level and the receptors will stimulate the respiratory centre to respond.

In chronic conditions like bronchitis, these chemoreceptors cease to function properly due to the abnormally high amount of carbon dioxide or acid that is present.

Under these conditions the chemoreceptors change roles and measure the decreasing oxygen content of the blood instead. The decreasing level of oxygen then becomes the stimulus for the respiratory centre - this condition is referred to as hypoxic drive.

In this situation giving a patient oxygen by face mask may increase the level of oxygen in the blood, which will actually reduce their hypoxic drive for respiration. This reduces the stimulus for the patient to breathe, making their condition worse

51

Tension pneumothorax

Tension pneumothorax is a continuous increase in pressure in the pleural cavity . This is brought about by an injury causing a one-way valve effect. Air is drawn into the pleural cavity with every inspiration but is prevented from escaping on exhalation by a flap of tissue at the injury site.

This is a very serious condition and can quickly become fatal. The underlying lung is compressed and pushed sideways into the mediastinum containing the heart and major vessels. Continued pressure will, in a short space of time, constrict the blood flow to the heart.

Signs and symptoms are:

 

Severe dyspnoea (difficulty breathing)

Restlessness

Anxiety

Weak pulse

Tachycardia (rapid heart rate)

Tachypnoea (increased respiratory rate)

Low blood pressure

Cyanosis (blue appearance of the skin)

Lowered level of consciousness

52

Emphysema

Normal lung tissue is elastic and compliant. Emphysema reduces this compliance and thickens the alveoli walls. Several alveoli may join together to form one large air sac - reducing the total surface area through which the exchange of gases can take place. The loss of the elasticity of the lung tissue causes them to become permanently inflated producing a "barrel chest" effect.

Expiration is usually a passive action but emphysemic patients have to force exhalation causing extreme distress. The patient will normally look pink because although normal amounts of oxygen are entering the body, the exhalation of carbon dioxide is a problem.

The major cause of emphysema is smoking. Evidence suggests that this causes an imbalance between the enzymes and proteins that normally protect the alveoli tissues.

Signs and symptoms:

 

Varying degrees of dyspnoea (difficulty breathing)

Coughing

Wheezing

Barrel chest

Anxious facial expression

Pursing of the lips on expiration

Weight loss

Usually pink in colour

Orthopnoea (difficulty breathing while lying down)

53

Bronchitis

Bronchitis is caused by an irritation and inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the bronchial tree. Thick greenish-yellow sputum is created which signifies the presence of an infection.

Smoking is still the most common cause but other factors like a family history of respiratory disease and air pollution can also contribute.

Signs and symptoms include:

 

Tachypnoea (increased respiratory rate)

Dyspnoea (difficulty breathing)

Productive cough green yellow thick

Cyanosis (blue appearance of the skin)

54

Asthma

Bronchial asthma is described as "a reversible obstruction of the airway due to spasm of the smooth muscle of the smaller bronchi and bronchioles". The mucous membrane lining the respiratory tract can also become irritated causing the production of thick mucous that plugs the smaller air passages and makes the attack worse.

The patient will have great difficulty exhaling and will have an anxious appearance.

Bronchial asthma can be psychosomatic (mental or emotional causes, like stress) but normally there are two varieties:

Extrinsic asthma
Usually occurs in young children or young adults and is caused by allergies to edible or airborne substances.
 

Intrinsic asthma
Caused in later life, usually over the age of 45, by infections or emotions.

Signs and symptoms include:

 

Severe dyspnoea (difficulty breathing)

Wheezing

Coughing

Orthopnoea (difficulty breathing while lying down)

Using accessory muscles of respiration

Chest movement appears to be on inspiratory phase - but patient experiences most difficulty when exhaling, hence the wheeze

55

two types of asthma

Extrinsic asthma
Usually occurs in young children or young adults and is caused by allergies to edible or airborne substances.
 

Intrinsic asthma
Caused in later life, usually over the age of 45, by infections or emotions.

56

external and internal respiration

label

where does external respiration take place

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external

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57

Respiratory tract

The respiratory tract is made up of ten main parts that follow one after the other in a line leading from the nose (or nasal cavity) to the pleura membrane in the lungs

1 nose  larynx lungs bronchi  trachea alveoi hilum

pharynx  bronchioles

10 pleura

 

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58

what happens on expiration

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59

what happens on inspiration

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