Memory: Model, Processes, & Forgetting Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psych > Memory: Model, Processes, & Forgetting > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory: Model, Processes, & Forgetting Deck (43):
1

memory

an active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form, organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage

2

encoding

the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain's storage systems

3

storage

holding onto information for some period of time

4

retrieval

getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used

5

information-processing model

model of memory that assumes the processing of information for memory storage is similar to the way a computer processes memore in a series of three stages

6

parallel distributed processing model (PDP)

a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections

7

levels-of-processing model

model of memory that assumes information that is more "deeply processed," or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time

8

sensory memory

the very first stage of memory; the point at which information enters the nervous system through the sensory systems

9

iconic memory

visual sensory memory, lasting only a fraction of a second

10

eidetic imagery

the ability to access a visual memory for 30 seconds or more

11

echoic imagery

the brief memory of something a person has just heard

12

short-term memory

the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used

13

selective attention

the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input

14

working memory

an active system that processes the information in short-term memory

15

maintenence rehearsal

practice of saying information to be remembered over and over in one's head in order to maintain it in short-term memory

16

long-term memory

the system of memory into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently

17

elaborative rehearsal

a method of transferring information from the short-term memory into the long-term memory by making that information meaningful in some way

18

procedural (nondeclarative) memory

type of long-term memory including memory for skills, procedures, habits, and conditioned responses; these memories are not conscious but are implied to exist because they affect conscious behavior

19

anterograde amnesia

loss of memory from the point of injury or trauma forward, or the inability to form new long-term memories

20

implicit memory

memory that is not easily brought into conscious awareness, such as procedural memory

21

declarative memory

type of long-term memory containing information that is conscious and known

22

semantic memory

type of declarative memory containing general knowledgy, such as knowledge of language and information learned in formal education

23

episodic memory

type of declarative memory containing personal information not readily available to others, such as daily activities and events

24

explicit memory

memory that is consciously known, such as declarative memory

25

semantic network model

model of memory organization that assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion, with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related

26

retrieval cue

a stimulus for remembering

27

encoding specificity

the tendency for memory of information to be improved if related information (such as surroundings or physiological state) is available when the memore is first formed is also available when the memory is being retrieved

28

recall

type of memory retrieval in which the information to be retrieved must be "pulled" from memory with very few external cues

29

recognition

the ability to match a piece of information or a stimulus to a stored image or fact

30

serial position effect

tendency of information at the beginning and end of a body of information to be remembered more accurately than information in the middle of the body of information

31

primacy effect

tendency to remember information at the beginning of a body of information than the information that follows

32

recency effect

tendency to remember information at the end of a body of information better than the information at the beginning of it

33

false positive

error of recognition in which people think that they recognize some stimulus that is not actually in memory

34

automatic encoding

tendency of certain kinds of information to enter long-term memory with little or not effortful encoding

35

flashbulb memories

type of automatic encoding that occurs because an unexpected event has strong emotional associations for the person remembering it

36

curve of forgetting

a graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers off gradually

37

distributed practice

spacing the study of material to be remembered by including breaks between study periods

38

encoding failure

failure to process information into memory

39

memory trace

physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed

40

decay

loss of memory due to the passage of time, during which the memory trace is not used

41

disuse

another name for decay, assuming that memories that are not used will eventually decay and disappear

42

proactive interference

memory problem that occurs when older information prevents or interferes with the learning or retrieval of newer information

43

retroactive interference

memory retrieval problem that occurs when newer information prevents or interferes with the retrieval of older information