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Flashcards in Mendelian Genetics Deck (55)
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1

the division of the cytoplasm

Cytokinesis

2

Compare + Contrast:
Mitosis vs. Meiosis

BOTH --> nuclear division

MITOSIS --> occurs in all body cells to produce somites which are cells identical to parent cell

MEIOSIS --> occurs is gonads to produce gametes which are cells unlike the parent cell

3

body cells

somites (somatic cells)

4

sex cells (egg + sperm)

gametes

5

Cell Cycle:
Interphase

*when cell is NOT dividing (90-95% of cycle - most of time)
*NOT a step of nuclear division

6

Compare + Contrast:
G1 vs. S vs. G2

ALL --> stages of Interphase
a. G1 - (gap-1) daughter cell doubles in size (grows to size of parent cell)

b. S - (synthesis) chromatin replicates

c. G2 - (gap-2) growth occurs, centrioles replicate; anticipating nuclear division

7

STAGES OF MITOSIS:

a. Early + Late Prophase
b. Metaphase
c. Early + Late Anaphase
d. Early + Late Telophase, Cytokinesis

8

STAGES OF MITOSIS:
1. Early + Late Prophase

EARLY:
*spindle forms
*no nuclear membrane

LATE:
*chromosomes move inward
*no nuclear membrane

9

3D array of fibers which are transport vehicles for chromosomes

Spindle / Spindle Fibers

10

Compare + Contrast:
Kinetochore vs. Non-Kinetochore

BOTH --> spindle fibers

KIN --> spindle fibers that DO contain chromosomes

NON-KIN --> spindle fibers that do NOT contain chromosomes

11

Compare + Contrast:
Chromosomes vs. Chromatids vs. Centromere

ALL --> involved in nuclear division in mitosis + meiosis

CHROMOSOMES --> one chromosome made up of two chromatids

CHROMATIDS --> two chromatids make up one chromosome

CENTROMERE --> place where two chromatids attach

12

STAGES OF MITOSIS:
2. Metaphase

chromosomes align at the midline of spindle

13

STAGES OF MITOSIS:
3. Early + Late Anaphase

EARLY:
*only haploid event in mitosis
*chromosomes break apart into chromatids

LATE:
*chromatids move apart and replicate into chromosomes

14

STAGES OF MITOSIS:
4. Early + Late Telophase

EARLY:
*chromosomes reach the poles

LATE:
*nuclear membrane forms
*chromatin material
*midline constriction
*CYTOKINESIS --> contents of cell split equally between cells (@ end of late telophase)

15

DIFFERENCES IN MEIOSIS STAGES:
Prophases I

*synapsis (alignment) of homologous (same set) chromosomes
*chiasmata occurs (crossing over)

16

the alignment of chromosomes

synapsis
(occurs in prophase I of meiosis)

17

paired chromosomes in sets of two that carry same traits and are located at same place

homologous chromosomes

18

crossing over; the exchange of genetic material

chiasmata

19

a cell that divids by meiosis to form gametes

meiocytes, gametocytes

20

Compare + Contrast:
Chromatids vs. Tetrad

BOTH --> contain genetic material, relate to chromosome make-up

CHROM --> two chromatids make up one chromosome

TETRAD --> group of four chromatids make up one set of homologous chromosomes

21

DIFFERENCES IN MEIOSIS STAGES:
Anaphase I + Anaphase II

ANAPHASE I:
*reduction division

ANAPHASE II:
*equatorial division

22

Compare + Contrast:
Reduction division vs. Equatorial division

BOTH --> occur in anaphase stage of meiosis

RED --> tetrads separate into duplicated chromosomes

EQU --> duplicated chromosomes separate into chromatids (single chromosomes)

23

sex

syngamy

24

1st diploid cell, formed by fertilization of haploid sperm + egg during syngamy

zygote

25

Compare + Contrast:
Gametes vs. Somites

BOTH --> types of cells

GAM --> sex cells (egg + sperm), haploid, produced by meiosis

SOM --> body cells, diploid, produces by mitosis

26

Compare + Contrast:
Gametes vs. Zygote

Both --> egg cell

GAM --> sex cell, haploid

ZYG --> fertilized egg cell, diploid

27

Compare + Contrast:
Diploid vs. Haploid

BOTH --> refer to number of chromosomes in a cell

DIPLOID --> contains full number of chromosomes, 46 in humans

HAPLOID --> contains half number of chromosomes, 23 in humans

28

Compare + Contrast:
Synapsis vs. Chiasmata

BOTH --> occur in prophase I of meiosis

SYN --> the alignment of homologous chromosomes

CHIA --> crossing over; the exchange of genetic material

29

Compare + Contrast:
Mitosis vs. Interphase

BOTH --> parts of cell cycle

MIT --> type of nuclear division that occurs in all body cells to produce somites which are identical to parent cell

INT --> stage when cell is NOT dividing

30

Compare + Contrast:
Mitosis vs. Cytokinesis

BOTH --> types of cell division

MIT --> type of nuclear division that occurs in all body cells to produce somites which are cells identical to parent cell

CYTO --> division of the cytoplasm