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Flashcards in Reproduction Deck (20)
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1

Compare + Contrast:
Autogamy vs. Autotomy

BOTH --> modes of reproduction

AUTOGAMY --> self-fertilization; ex. paramecium

AUTOTOMY --> self-amputation; removed body part becomes new offspring; ex. starfish

2

Compare + Contrast:
Asexual vs. Sexual

BOTH -- > methods of reproduction

A --> one individual involved

SEX --> usually involves two organisms; fertilization occurs

3

Compare + Contrast:
Binary Fission
vs.
Multiple Fission

BOTH --> forms of asexual reproduction

BIN --> one individual produces two offspring; ex. protozoa

MULT --> orderly division; produces more than 2 offspring; ex. sea anemones

4

Compare + Contrast:
Polyembryony
vs.
Larval Amplification
vs.
Parthenogenesis

ALL --> modes of reproduction

POLY --> division of fertilized eggs into clones; ex. wasps

LA --> larval stages divide and multiply; ex. parasitic flatworms

PARTH --> offspring form from unfertilized eggs

5

Compare + Contrast:
Simultaneous Hermaphroditism
vs.
Sequential Hermaphroditism

BOTH --> both reproductive systems are located in a single individual

SIM --> systems function at the same time; self-fertilization; ex. earthworms

SEQ --> one reproductive system develops before the other; born one sex - die the other; ex. molluscs

6

Compare + Contrast:
Protandry vs. Protogyny

BOTH --> sequential hermaphroditism

ANDRY --> start male, become female, ex. oysters

GYNY --> start female, become male, ex. some fishes

7

Compare + Contrast:
Monoecious vs. Dioecious

BOTH --> sexual reproduction

MONO --> both reproductive systems located in single individual

DIO --> separate sexes, 2 individuals

8

Compare + Contrast:
Vitelline envelope
vs.
Fertilization envelope

BOTH --> membranes

VIT --> thin membrane of egg cell that is penetrated by sperm cell

FERT --> thick, impermeable membrane formed after fertilization to protect zygote

9

Compare + Contrast:
Acrosomal Reaction
vs.
Cortical Reaction

BOTH --> reactions that occur during process of fertilization

ACRO --> enzymes on the acrosome digest egg membrane so fertilization can occur

CORT --> enzymes produced to cover the egg and kill sperm after fertilization occur

10

Compare + Contrast:
Hologamy
vs.
Autogamy
vs.
Syngamy

ALL --> sexual reproduction

HOLO --> fusion of two complete individuals

AUTO --> self-fertilization

SYNG --> fusion of gametes

11

LISTING/DISCUSSION:
Fertilization Process (8 steps)

1. chemo-attraction
2. acrosomal reaction
3. egg permeability increase and polarity changes
4. acrosomal process penetrates vitelline envelope
5. egg extends fertilization cone
6. cell membranes unite
7. sperm head drawn into egg (excluding midpiece and tail)
8. zygote forms

12

LISTING/DISCUSSION:
Adaptations - Reproductive Synchrony (3)

1. gametes produced at same time
2. gametes released at same time
3. both gamete production and release are usually seasonal, due to environmental cues, or gametes of one sex stimulate the release of the other

13

LISTING/DISCUSSION:
Adaptations of External Fertilization (7)

1. large # of gametes
2. natural ventilation/currents to disperse gametes
3. favorable habitat
4. swarming
5. amplexus
6. pheromones
7. simple reproductive tracts for gamete explusion

14

LISTING/DISCUSSION:
Types of Asexual Reproduction (8)

1. binary fission
2. multiple fission
3. fragmentation
4. autotomy
5. budding
6. polyembryony
7. larval amplification
8. parthenogenesis

15

LISTING/DISCUSSION:
Types of Sexual Reproduction (4)

1. hologamy
2. autogamy
3. syngamy
4. dioecious
5. conjegation
6. hermaphroditism
- simultanoeus
- sequential

16

DISCUSSION:
Advantages of ASEXUAL Reproduction (6)

1. eliminates mates
2. simple + quick
3. little energy needed
4. large # of offspring
5. only mitosis and growth
6. all offspring same (in stable environment)

17

DISCUSSION:
Disadvantages of ASEXUAL Reproduction (2)

1. variation only by mutation
2. all offspring the same (in changing environment)

18

DISCUSSION:
Advantages of SEXUAL Reproduction (3)

1. genetic variability due to recombination (in changing environment)
2. DNA repair in Meiosis II
3. increase population fitness

19

DISCUSSION:
Disadvantages of SEXUAL Reproduction (7)

1. complicated
2. energy expensive
3. low # of offspring
4. meiosis, mitosis, and growth
5. excess males
6. long time needed
7. mate selection

20

DISCUSSION:
Oogenesis (5)

1. location - internal follicles (ovaries)
2. oogonia (2N)
3. mitosis produce primary oocytes (2N)
4. secondary oocytes (N)
5. .....
*if fertilization occurs: ovum and 3 polar bodies are formed
*if fertilization does NOT occur: expulsion with menstrual flow