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Flashcards in Molecular Genetics Deck (35)
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1

scientists;
credited with determining structure of DNA

Watson + Crick

2

scientists;
used x-ray crystalography to support the double helix model of DNA

Franklin + Wilkins

3

scientists;
proved semiconservative model of DNA

Meselson + Stahl

4

scientists;
speciation

Dozhanksy + Mayr

5

scientist;
scottish reproductive biologist who cloned the sheep "Dolly"

Wilmut

6

Compare + Contrast:
Codon vs. Genetic Code

BOTH --> part of the DNA strand

CODON --> 3 nitrogen bases working together to produce an amino acid

GEN CODE --> made up of all of the codons together

7

Compare + Contrast:
Codon vs. Anticodon

BOTH --> sequence of 3 nucleotides that form a unit of genetic code

CODON --> in messenger RNA (mRNA)

ANTI --> in transfer RNA (tRNA)

8

Compare + Contrast:
Start Codon vs. Stop Codon

BOTH --> sub-steps of translation

START --> initiates translation (AUG)

STOP --> terminates translation (UAA, UAG, UGA)

9

Compare + Contrast:
DNA Polymerase vs. DNA Ligase

BOTH --> enzymes involved in DNA replication

POLYM --> adds nucleotides on the leading strand

LIGASE --> binds okazaki fragments together to form the lagging strand

10

Compare + Contrast:
Leading Strand vs. Lagging Strand

BOTH --> parts of the replication fork

LEAD --> continuous, formed quicker

LAG --> discontinuous (fragments formed), forms slower

11

Compare + Contrast:
Introns vs. Exons

BOTH --> codons

IN --> useless DNA codons

EX --> codons for amino acids

12

Compare + Contrast:
Transcription vs. Translation

BOTH --> parts of protein synthesis

TRANSCRIP --> copies genetic code of DNA onto strand that can leave nucleus, produces mRNA, introns removed, occur in nucleus

TRANSLAT --> occurs in 3 steps - initiation, elongations, termination; protein is synthesized from mRNA, occurs in ribosome

13

Compare + Contrast:
mRNA vs. tRNA vs. rRNA

ALL --> types of RNA

mRNA --> produces by transcription, copy of the genetic code (DNA)

tRNA --> contains amino acids to be assembled into polypeptide during translation

rRNA --> makes up structure of ribosome

14

Compare + Contrast:
Mutation vs. Mutagen

BOTH --> affect the genetic code

MUTATION --> an unplanned change in the genetic code

MUTAGEN --> causes mutations (UV, x-rays, chemicals)

15

Compare + Contrast:
Point Mutation vs. Frameshift Mutation

BOTH --> changes in the genetic code

POINT --> one base is changed

FRAME --> many bases are changed (insertion/deletion)

16

Compare + Contrast:
Transitions vs. Transversions

BOTH --> point mutations

TRANSITIONS -->
- purine is converted to purine (AG)
- pyridamine is converted to pyridamine (CT)

TRANSVERSIONS -->
- purine is converted to pyridamine
- pyridamine is converted to purine

17

Compare + Contrast:
Missense vs. Nonsense vs. Neutral Mutations

ALL --> results of point mutations

MISS --> mutation produces codon for a different amino acid

NON --> no substitute amino acid produced; synthesis stops (nothing produced)

NEUTRAL --> an exact substitution is produced; no effect

18

Compare + Contrast:
Genetic Engineering vs. Biotechnology

BOTH --> have to do with recombinant DNA

GEN. ENG. --> forms recombinant DNA; genes from one individual are inserted into another individual

BIOTECH. --> using recombinant DNA to form new products

19

Compare + Contrast:
Gene Pool vs. Genetic Drift

BOTH --> refer to the genetic make up of a population

POOL --> all of the genes in a population

DRIFT --> exchanging of genes with other members within a population

20

Compare + Contrast:
Species vs. Speciation

BOTH --> regarding individuals who vary genetically but are able to interbreed

SPECIES --> individuals with similarities and differences found in the same location at the same time, and are able to interbreed

SPECIATION --> process of producing a new species due to barriers

21

Compare + Contrast:
Allopatric vs. Sympatric

BOTH --> types of speciation

ALLO --> physical barriers cause formation of new species (ex. rivers, roads, etc.)

SYMP --> genetic barriers cause formation of new species

22

Compare + Contrast:
Prezygotic vs. Postzygotic

BOTH --> types of sympatric speciation

PRE --> barriers occur before mating

POST --> barriers occur after fertilization

23

Compare + Contrast:
Microevolution
vs.
Macroevolution

BOTH --> change with time

MICRO --> changes within a species

MACRO --> change of one species into another

24

Compare + Contrast:
Artificial Selection
vs.
Bottleneck Effect

BOTH --> processes of evolution

ART --> the breeding of plants and animals to produce desirable traits

BOT --> a dramatic reduction in population size leads to reduced genetic variability

25

Compare + Contrast:
Phyletic Gradualism
vs.
Punctuated Equilibrium

BOTH --> rates of change

PHYL --> continuously slow rate of change (occurs most often)

PUNCT --> rapid bursts of change with long periods of quiet

26

Listing:
Characteristics of Macroevolution (6)

1. Slow rates of change
- phyletic gradualism
- punctuated equilibrium
2. Adaptive radiation
3. Mass extinction
4. Replacement
5. Directional (trends in fossil record)
6. Vestigial structures (useless features that link evolutionary events)

27

Listing:
Chromosomal Changes (4 types)

1. Translocation - segment of one chromosome breaks off and is transferred to another chromosome

2. Deletion - chromosome loses a fragment; causes one or few genes to be lost

3. Inversion - the order of the genes in the chromosome will change

4. Duplication - a section of DNA is duplicated/copied

28

Listing:
Recombinant DNA outcomes (2 with subcategories)

1. Harvesting large quantities of genes
- pest control
- bioremediation (using bacteria to clean up biohazards - ex. oil)
- DNA fingerprinting
- Genetic studies

2. Harvesting large quantities of protein
- disease treatment

29

building blocks of genetic material; made up of phosphate group, sugar, and nitrogen base

Nucleotide

30

Complementary base pairing

A - T (U)
C - G

31

two strands of DNA; keep one original strand and make one new strand

Semiconservative

32

three nitrogen bases working together to produce an amino acid

Codon

33

fixed point where double strand of DNA is separated into single strands

Replication fork

34

enzyme that causes the unwinding of DNA; separates double stand of DNA into single strand

DNA Topoisomerase (DNA Helicase)

35

Discussion:
Mechanism of DNA Replication:
4 enzymes with steps

1. DNA Topoisomerase (Helicase) separates the double strand of DNA into single strands - forming the replication fork

2. DNA Polymerase adds nucleotides continuously to the leading strand

3. RNA Polymerase forms pieces in the cytoplasm called okazaki fragments; RNA Primers located on fragments to ensure fragments are arranged in correct order

4. DNA Ligase binds okazaki fragments togther to form the new lagging strand