What are the three layers of the meninges?
“The meninges PAD the CNS”
1. P ia
2. A rachnoid
3. D ura
What meningeal space, which lies between the pia and arachnoid, contains the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
What structure produces CSF?
The choroid plexus of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles
What structures reabsorb CSF into venous circulation?
The arachnoid granulations
Trace the flow of CSF from the choroid plexus into venous circulation.
Choroid plexus → lateral ventricles → interventricular foramina (of Monro) → third ventricle → cerebral aqueduct → fourth ventricle → lateral foramina (of Luschka) or median foramen (of Magendie) → subarachnoid space → arachnoid granulations → superior sagittal sinus
What are the three major functions of CSF?
1. To provide support and protection to the CNS
2. To remove metabolic waste products
3. To transport hormones and cytokines throughout the CSF and to the systemic circulation
Blood vessel that supplies the Anterior two-thirds of the spinal cord, the medullary pyramids, medial lemniscus, and root fibers of cranial nerve (CN) XII
Anterior spinal artery
Blood vessel that supplies the Retina
Central artery of the retina (a branch of the ophthalmic artery
Blood vessel that supplies the Lateral geniculate body, globus pallidus, posterior limb of internal capsule
Anterior choroidal artery (an important branch of internal carotid artery)
Blood vessel that supplies the Hypothalamus and ventral thalamus
Posterior communicating artery
Blood vessel that supplies the Leg-foot area of motor and sensory cortices
Anterior cerebral artery (ACA)
Blood vessel that supplies the Anterior putamen, caudate nucleus, and anteroinferior internal capsule
Medial striate arteries (branches of the ACA)
Blood vessel that supplies the Broca (expressive) and Wernicke (receptive) speech areas, face and arm areas of motor cortices, frontal eye field
Middle cerebral artery (MCA)
Blood vessel that supplies the Internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus
Lateral striate arteries (branches of the MCA)
Blood vessel that supplies the Nucleus ambiguus and the inferior surface of the cerebellum
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery
Blood vessel that supplies the Caudal lateral pontine tegmentum (including portions of the nuclei of CN V, VII) and the inferior cerebellar surface
Anterior inferior cerebellar artery
Blood vessel that supplies the Superior surface of cerebellum, cerebellar nuclei, and the cochlear nuclei
Superior cerebellar artery
Blood vessel that supplies the Majority of midbrain, portions of the thalamus, lateral and medial geniculate bodies, occipital lobe, inferior aspect of the temporal lobes, and the hippocampus
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA)
Blood vessel that supplies the Majority of the dura
Middle meningeal artery
Name the cerebral veins that drain directly into the superior sagittal sinus:
Name the cerebral vein that drains deep cerebral veins into the straight sinus:
Vein of Galen
CN III, CN V1, CN V2, CN VI, postganglionic sympathetic fibers, and both internal carotid arteries all pass through which structure?