Neurotransmitters and cerebral cortex Flashcards Preview

Neuroscience Deja Review USMLE 1 > Neurotransmitters and cerebral cortex > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neurotransmitters and cerebral cortex Deck (38):
1

Major NT of the PNS

ACh

2

NT which is increased in the CNS of patients with schizophrenia

Dopamine

3

Major NT of the parasympathetic nervous system

ACh

4

NT believed to cause panic attacks when released suddenly by the locus coeruleus

NE

5

Major NT of the preganglionic sympathetic nervous system

ACh

6

NT highly concentrated in the substantia nigra that plays a key role in pain transmission

Substance P

7

Major NT of the postganglionic sympathetic neurons supplying sweat glands and certain blood vessels

ACh

8

NT which is depleted from the basal nucleus of Meynert in Alzheimer disease

ACh

9

NT which is depleted from the substantia nigra in patients with Parkinson disease

Dopamine

10

NT that causes renal vasodilation

Dopamine

11

Powerful analgesic NT found exclusively in the hypothalamus

β-Endorphin

12

Opiate peptides which play a role in pain suppression

Enkephalins

13

NT that regulates release of GH and TSH; markedly ↓ Alzheimer disease

Somatostatin

14

Major inhibitory NT of the cortex

GABA

15

Major inhibitory NT of the spinal cord

Glycine

16

Major excitatory NT of the brain

Glutamate

17

Gaseous, vasoactive NT involved in memory

Nitrous oxide

18

NT important in the initiation of sleep

Melatonin

19

NT which inhibits the reticular activating center, thereby increasing total sleep time

ACh

20

Two NTs believed to be depleted in depression

1. NE
2. Serotonin

21

Which two amino acids can serve as a precursor for the synthesis of catecholamines?

1. Phenylalanine
2. Tyrosine

22

What are the six layers of neocortex?

1. Layer I: molecular layer
2. Layer II: external granular layer
3. Layer III: external pyramidal layer
4. Layer IV: internal granular layer
5. Layer V: internal pyramidal layer
6. Layer VI: multiform layer

23

Site of lesion causing Right-sided flaccid hemiparalysis

Left primary motor area (Brodmann area 4)

24

Site of lesion causing Left-sided pronator drift

Right primary motor area (Brodmann area 4)

25

Site of lesion causing Loss of abstract thought and self-restraint

Bilateral loss of frontal lobes anterior to the frontal eye fields

26

Site of lesion causing Slowed speech without any impairment of language comprehension

Broca speech area (Brodmann areas 44, 45; always in the dominant hemisphere, usually left)

27

Site of lesion causing Loss of right-sided tactile sensation and proprioception

Left somesthetic area (Brodmann areas 3, 1, 2)

28

Site of lesion causing Cortical deafness

Bilateral destruction of the auditory areas (Brodmann areas 41, 42); unilateral destruction of the auditory area causes a slight ↓ in hearing.

29

Site of lesion causing Inability to understand spoken language and verbalize coherent thoughts

Wernicke speech area (Brodmann area 22) in the dominant hemisphere, usually left

30

Site of lesion causing Ipsilateral anosmia (inability to smell)

Primary olfactory area (Brodmann area 34)

31

Site of lesion causing Alexia and agraphia (inability to read and write)

Angular gyrus (Brodmann area 39)

32

Site of lesion causing Loss of ability to transfer information from short-term to long-term memory

Bilateral destruction of the hippocampal cortex

33

Site of lesion causing Psychic blindness, hyperphagia, docility, and hypersexuality (Klüver-Bucy syndrome)

Bilateral destruction of the anterior temporal lobes (amygdala)

34

Site of lesion causing Loss of ability to recognize faces

Inferomedial right occipitotemporal area

35

Site of lesion causing Loss of vision in the right visual field with macular sparing

Destruction of the left primary visual area (Brodmann area 17)

36

Name the term used to describe a deficit in the ability to draw a geometric figure:

Construction apraxia

37

Name the term used to describe a “magnetic gait,” commonly seen in normal-pressure hydrocephalus:

Gait apraxia

38

What part of the nervous system is involved in maintaining wakefulness?

Reticular activating system and bilateral cortex