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Neuroscience Deja Review USMLE 1 > New Deck > Flashcards

Flashcards in New Deck Deck (25):
1

What are the three primary functions of the cerebellum?

1. Maintenance of posture and equilibrium
2. Control of muscle tone
3. Coordination of voluntary muscle activity

2

What type of tremor may result from a cerebellar lesion?

Intention tremor

3

A positive Romberg sign (loss of balance when the eyes are closed) suggests a lesion to which tract of the CNS?

Dentothalamic tract (the main cerebellar pathway) or dorsal column (tabes dorsalis in neurosyphilis)

4

What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Vision

Lateral geniculate nucleus (“Lateral to Look”)

5

What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Hearing

Medial geniculate nucleus (“Medial for Music”)

6

What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Proprioception, pain, pressure, touch, vibration

Lateral portion of ventral posteriornucleus (VPL, “Posterior for Proprioception, Pain”)

7

What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Facial sensation

Medial portion of ventral posterior nucleus (VML)

8

What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Motor

Ventral anterior/lateral nuclei

9

What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Limbic function

Dorsomedial, anterior nuclei

10

Name the largest thalamic nucleus:

Pulvinar

11

What is the function of the pulvinar?

Integration of visual, auditory, and somesthetic input

12

Which portion of the internal capsule contains fibers of the corticobulbar tract?

The genu

13

Which portion of the internal capsule contains fibers of the corticospinal, spinothalamic, visual, and auditory tracts?

The posterior limb

14

Which arteries supply the posterior limb of the internal capsule?

Perforating branches of the anteriorchoroidal artery and lenticulostriate arteries

15

What hypothalamic nucleus regulates the release of gonadotropic hormones

Medial preoptic nucleus (which contains the sexually dimorphic nucleus)

16

What hypothalamic nucleus regulates the circadian rhythms

Suprachiasmatic nucleus

17

What hypothalamic nucleus regulates body temperature

Anterior nucleus (lesion results in hyperthermia) and posterior nucleus (lesion results in poikilothermia)

18

What hypothalamic nucleus regulates water balance, synthesis of antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, and corticotropin-releasing factor

Paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei

19

What hypothalamic nucleus regulates appetite

VentroMedial nucleus (lesion resulting from eating Very Much [hyperphagia, obesity]) and lateral hypothalamic nucleus (lesions cause anorexia and starvation)

20

What hypothalamic nucleus regulates the hypothalamus

Arcuate or infundibular nucleus

21

What hypothalamic nucleus regulates emotional expression

Mammillary nucleus (a component of the limbic system)

22

What are the major structures of the Papez circuit?

Septal area, mammillary body, anteriornucleus of thalamus, cingulate gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampal formation

23

What is the most epileptogenic part of the cerebrum?

The hippocampus

24

What system within the CNS plays a central role in the initiation and coordination of somatic motor activity?

The striatal or extrapyramidal motor system

25

What are the major components of the striatal motor system?

Neocortex, basal ganglia (striatum [caudate + putamen], globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra), and thalamus