What are the three primary functions of the cerebellum?
1. Maintenance of posture and equilibrium
2. Control of muscle tone
3. Coordination of voluntary muscle activity
What type of tremor may result from a cerebellar lesion?
A positive Romberg sign (loss of balance when the eyes are closed) suggests a lesion to which tract of the CNS?
Dentothalamic tract (the main cerebellar pathway) or dorsal column (tabes dorsalis in neurosyphilis)
What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Vision
Lateral geniculate nucleus (“Lateral to Look”)
What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Hearing
Medial geniculate nucleus (“Medial for Music”)
What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Proprioception, pain, pressure, touch, vibration
Lateral portion of ventral posteriornucleus (VPL, “Posterior for Proprioception, Pain”)
What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Facial sensation
Medial portion of ventral posterior nucleus (VML)
What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Motor
Ventral anterior/lateral nuclei
What thalamic nucleus/nuclei relays Limbic function
Dorsomedial, anterior nuclei
Name the largest thalamic nucleus:
What is the function of the pulvinar?
Integration of visual, auditory, and somesthetic input
Which portion of the internal capsule contains fibers of the corticobulbar tract?
Which portion of the internal capsule contains fibers of the corticospinal, spinothalamic, visual, and auditory tracts?
The posterior limb
Which arteries supply the posterior limb of the internal capsule?
Perforating branches of the anteriorchoroidal artery and lenticulostriate arteries
What hypothalamic nucleus regulates the release of gonadotropic hormones
Medial preoptic nucleus (which contains the sexually dimorphic nucleus)
What hypothalamic nucleus regulates the circadian rhythms
What hypothalamic nucleus regulates body temperature
Anterior nucleus (lesion results in hyperthermia) and posterior nucleus (lesion results in poikilothermia)
What hypothalamic nucleus regulates water balance, synthesis of antidiuretic hormone, oxytocin, and corticotropin-releasing factor
Paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei
What hypothalamic nucleus regulates appetite
VentroMedial nucleus (lesion resulting from eating Very Much [hyperphagia, obesity]) and lateral hypothalamic nucleus (lesions cause anorexia and starvation)
What hypothalamic nucleus regulates the hypothalamus
Arcuate or infundibular nucleus
What hypothalamic nucleus regulates emotional expression
Mammillary nucleus (a component of the limbic system)
What are the major structures of the Papez circuit?
Septal area, mammillary body, anteriornucleus of thalamus, cingulate gyrus, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampal formation
What is the most epileptogenic part of the cerebrum?
What system within the CNS plays a central role in the initiation and coordination of somatic motor activity?
The striatal or extrapyramidal motor system
What are the major components of the striatal motor system?
Neocortex, basal ganglia (striatum [caudate + putamen], globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra), and thalamus