Flashcards in Metabolism Deck (81)
Catabolism (release of energy)
Anabolism (requires energy)
-breaking down; building up
Cellular respiration/fermentation are catabolic or anabolic pathways? What does this mean?
They release energy b|c they break something down
What makes something a nucleotide?
Sugar, phosphate, nitrogenous bases
Which phosphate in atp has most energy
Third one; it's the first to break off when ATP becomes ADP + Pi
ATP is a polymer of .... ?
What is the general overview of cellular respiration?
Takes energy from food we eat and stores it in ATP. Refers to the oxidation of glucose as the fuel!!!!
partial or complet loss of electrons
What breaks down ATP into ADP+Pi?
Enzyme called ATPase
Compound is more reactive; still getting energy
ATP --> ADP+Pi+energy
The third phosphate enzymatically breaks off and phosphorylates (gives its energy) to another compound ex: muscle.
The Pi eventually falls off and can be used again to make ATP
Release energy when electrons move closer to electronegative atoms.
A short reference to: oxidation-reduction reactions which involves the partial or complete transfer of electrons from on reactant to another.
Partial or complete gain of electrons
(electrons=negative so if you GAIN electrons, the charge is REDUCED)
Every time an electron moves/is transferred...
It loses energy
What is oxygen's role in terms of REDOX reactions?
It is really electronegative so it pulls electrons toward it which causes electrons to give off energy
What is the chemical formula for glucose?
Do we always lose energy when we get it from something?
YES- transfer is never 100%
We give off lost energy in HEAT (that's why body is warm)
Can REDOX reactions occur in bacteria?
Yes but they use Nitrogen gas from the air instead of oxygen
How does a GENERALIZED REDOX reaction work?
electron transfer between a donor and an acceptor so, when one is oxidized the other is reduced
The substance being oxidized (giving up the electron) because it is REDUCING another substance by giving that electron to that other substance (which is being reduced)
The substance being reduced (gaining the electron)
In REDOX reactions, why is there an electron transport chain?
Because electrons only give off energy when they're moving (in humans they are moving toward O2 at the end of the chain)
Why do we die without oxygen?
Because there is nothing for electron to be attracted to so electron doesn't move and doesn't give off energy
Is the ETC a slow or fast way of burring energy?
Slow burn! That's WHY we have an ETC. ETC is oxidation=breaking things down to get energy (catabolism)
What would happen without an ETC?
The cell wouldn't have enough time to catch energy
What are good sources of energy (Carbs, protein, or fat) and why?
Carbs and fats because they have a lot of C-H bonds which both lose potential energy as they move closer to electroneg. atoms
What do enzymes do for the activation energy used to start chemical reactions? (ADP+Pi= ATP)
Enzymes lower the activation energy so that the oxidized glucose may pass through Glycolysis and the Krebs cycle in a stepwise fashion
In sugar burned (oxidized) slowly or quickly? WHY?
Slowly bc if it was quick we wouldn't be able to catch the released energy
What are the three acts?
Act 1- Glycolysis
Act 2- Krebs (citric acid) cycle
Act 3- Electron transport cycle
What enzymes work on