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Flashcards in Skeletal System Deck (121):
0

Five types of bone

1. Long
2. Short
3. Flat
4. Irregular
5. Sesamoid

1

Give ex of each of the five bones

1. Long- femur
2. Short- tarsal
3. Flat- parietal
4. Irregular- vertebra
5. Sesamoid (round)- patella

2

Glycosaminolgycans (gags)

Organic matter in bone

3

Hydroxyapatite

Only found in bone!!
Inorganic; mineral

4

Relationship btwn skeleton and calcium

Skeleton is reservoir of calcium, it stores extra

5

Lamellae

Layers

6

Concentric circles

Rings start out small and get larger toward outside

7

What kind of tissue is bone

CT

8

Epiphyseal plate

Hyaline cartilage; where your bone grew from as you grew; forms a model for bone to replace

9

Osteogenic cells

Will eventually give rise to bone

10

Osteon

Basic stuctural unit of compact bone

11

Does periosteum rot

Yes over time

12

Medullary cavity

Cavity inside bone

13

Bone salts are located ?

In the matrix

14

What are 2 bone salts and what do they do

Calcium carbonate and hydroxyapatite (unique to bone!!!)

Make bone hard

15

2 diff btwn bone and cartilage

Bone has concentric rings

Cartilage has chondroblasts, bones has osteoblasts (both sit in lacunae)

16

Is bone vascular?

Yes

17

What is in the middle of each osteon?

Central canal (Haversion)

18

Another name for central canal

Haversion canal

19

What tissue are the rings in osteon

CT

20

Where are osteocytes located?

In lacunae in between concentric circles

21

Perforating (volkmann's) canal

Enter bone from outside and inside feeding into Haversian systems carrying nerves and blood vessels

22

Sharpey's fibers

Keep periosteum so strong and from peeling off; anchor it

23

Where is red marrow

Spongy bone

24

Canaliculi

Canals btwn lacunae of ossified bone; osteocytes project into them

25

What kind of marrow is in the medullary cavity?

Yellow marrow

26

How many vertebrae are there?

33

27

How many cervical vertebrae are there and what are the first 2 specifically called?

7

Atlas
Axis

28

How many thoracic vertebrae are there

12

29

How many lumbar vertebrae are there

5

30

How many sacrum vertebrae are there

5 (fused)

31

How many coccyx are there?

4 (fused)

32

Articulate

Put together; where they meet

33

Facet

Face

34

Process

Projection or outgrowth of tissue from after body

36

Tubercle

Nodule/small eminence, especially one on a bone for attachment of a tendon

37

What percent of our skeletal system being broken down and remade in one year?

25%

38

Smallest bones in the body

3 ear bones

39

Hyoid bone

Floating bone; only bone not connected to anything

40

What kind of cartilage is the articular cartilage at the ends of long bones (epiphysis)?

Hyaline

41

What kind of cartilage is in the ribs?

Costal (fibrocartilage)

42

Another name for the body of vertebrae

Centrum

43

What are four main functions of bone?

Support/protection, body movement, inorganic salt storage, and blood cell formation

Hint: SIP 'double' B

44

How many bones are in the adult

206

45

How many bones in newborn

270

46

Axial skeleton consists of:

skull, middle-ear bones, hyoid, rib cage, vertebral column, and sternum

47

Appendicular skeleton consists of:

upper/lower extremities, and the pectoral and pelvic girdles

48

Diaphysis

shaft of long bone

49

Epiphysis

ends of long bone

50

Trabeculae

slender plates of spongy bone

51

Function of osteoblasts

Make bone by making matrix (concentric circles); store calcium in bone; (become osteocytes)

52

Where are osteogenic cells?

Endosteum, inner periosteum, and the Haversian canals; only source of new cells of osteoblasts and osteocytes

53

Osteocytes

osteoblasts trapped in bone matrix; remain active in maintenance of bone

54

Osteoclasts

bone-DISSOLVING cells that form by fusion of monocytes; break down bone and release its minerals to the blood

55

What comes out of bone when osteoclasts break it down?

minerals; calcium

56

As you get older you get (more/less?) osteoclasts

more

57

What helps you to absorb calcium

Vitamin D

58

What systems won't work without calcium

muscular, skeletal, and nervous

59

Organic matter in bone

collagen, GAGS, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins

60

Mineral components in bone

ESPECIALLY hydroxyapatite (unique to bone) and calcium carbonate; phosphate

61

How are lamellae of bone arranged

concentric circles around Haversian canals

62

Within the lamellae of concentric rings lie the.....

lacuna with osteocytes

63

Canaliculi

Extend between adjacent lamellae

64

Do red blood cells have nuclei

NOOOOOO

65

Do RBC divide when out of marrow?

NOOOOOO

66

What is RBC main function

to transport oxygen

67

In children, red marrow also called ___? is _____ and resides where?

also called myeloid tissue is hemopoietic (blood maker) and fills the medullary cavity

68

Myeloid

pertaining to the marrow

69

Hemopoietic

formation of blood/blood cells

70

Where is most of the marrow in adults? (age 30)

in the medullary cavity; its YELLOW marrow that stores fat (long bones)

71

In older adults (age 70), what is yellow marrow mostly replaced with?

Gelatinous marrow- no tremendous function; bones become more fragile

72

Ossification

making of bone

73

intramembranous ossification

Occurs within a membrane of soft tissue that represents the location of a future flat bone (ref. to skull). Its cells differentiate into osteogenic cells and osteoblasts, (in skull of fetus) and trabecular are formed

74

What did the bones of the skull used to be?

membrane of soft tissue

75

How do osteoblasts form bone?

they form on the trabecular and lay down an organic matrix and deposit calcium phosphate within it; when trapped, they become osteocytes.

76

Achondriatic dwarfism

cartilage stops diving so bones won't grow anymore

77

Endochondrial ossification

bone formation using a cartilage model. in the center of the model is the primary ossification center where lacunae enlarge and minerals are deposited around them. (cartilage becomes bone)

78

Whats the primary ossification center for endochondral ossification?

cells of the PERICHONDRIUM develop into a periosteum (bone lining) where osteogenic cells and osteoblasts produce bone on the OUTSIDE of the model

79

Where on the cartilage model is bone produced

Outside of it

80

What is formed on the inside in the center of the cartilage model in endochondral ossification

A primary marrow space is formed

81

What is the metaphysis?

The transition between the head of hyaline cartilage and the primary marrow space; "meta-" = middle and "-physis" = to grow

82

How many zones does the metaphysis exhibit that represent the stages of ossification

5

83

Where do secondary ossification centers form at birth?

In the epiphyses of long bones

84

What happens to the epiphysis at the secondary ossification center

It's hollowed out from the center outward and is replaced by bone

85

Where does cartilage remain until adulthood?

at the epiphyseal plate

86

Deficiency of vitamin A

retards bone development

87

deficiency of vitamin C

results in fragile bones

88

deficiency of vitamin D

rickets: metabolic disorder: phosphorous/calcium
osteomalacia= bone softening

89

osteomalacia

bone softening

90

Excess of vitamin A

cause lysosome cells to burst prematurely

91

Insufficient growth hormone

dwarfism

92

excessive growth hormone

gigantism

93

insufficient thyroid hormone

delays bone growth

94

sex hormones

promote bone formation: stimulate ossification of epiphyseal plates

95

physical stress

stimulates bone growth

96

Resorption

the process of dissolving bone to release its minerals to the BLOODSTREAM
Osteoclasts dissolve bone

97

What do osteoclasts dissolve bone with

Acid phosphatase

98

The skeleton serves as a reservoir for...

calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals that play important roles in physiology

99

Hypocalcemia

excessively low calcium concentration that causes the nervous system to become hyper excitable (lose ability to stay calm)

100

What can result from hypocalcemia

muscle tetany

101

Hypercalcemia

excessive calcium which can cause nervous system depression and sometimes cardiac arrest

102

Calcium storage

into bone

103

calcium resorption

into blood

104

What controls balance between calcium storage and calcium resorption?

Two hormones:
calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH)

105

calcitonin

Acts t o LOWER blood levels of calcium by stimulating osteoblasts and inhibiting osteoclasts

calci[ton]in= TONE it down, too much calcium

106

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

Raises blood calcium when it drops too low; stimulates osteoclasts, lessens urinary excretion of calcium, and stimulated the synthesis of vitamin D

107

Where is body is vitamin D produced?

skin, liver, and kidney; need it from an outside source

108

Calcitrol

most active form of vitamin D; produced together by the skin (with UV light), live, and kidney

109

What does calcitrol promote?

Intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate while reducing urinary elimination of these minerals

110

Hematoma

Bruise; can result from bone fracture from torn blood vessels

111

Order of healing of bone fractures

hematoma---> soft granulation tissue forms as blood vessels grow into hematoma ---> macrophages remove debris ---> fibroblasts deposit collagen----> chondroblasts form fibrocartilage callus (soft first, replaced w/ bony tissue)

112

How long is the area of a fracture remodeled?

3-4 months until broken bone fragments are resorbed

113

Two ways fractures may be set by

1. closed reduction- no surgery; caste
2. open reduction- surgical placement of bones using pins and plates

114

Orthopedics

branch of medicine dealing with injuries/disorders of bones, joints, and muscles

115

Osteoporosis

MOST COMMON bone disease in which bone lose mass and become brittle

116

Whose most prone to osteoporosis

elderly, postmenopausal white women (black women rarely afflicted)

117

Kyphosis

From osteoporosis, spine becomes compressed

118

Disuse osteoporosis

occurs at any age due to immobilization or inadequate weight-bearing exercise

119

Reasons for falls among elderly

frailty, decrease in muscle strength, decreased coordination; side effects of medicine; slowed reaction time due to stiffening joints; poor vision and/or hearing, disease (cancer, arthritis, infection)

120

Organic matter in bone

GAGS

121

Inorganic matter in bone

Mineral- hydroxyapatite; calcium carbonate (bone salts)