Muscular System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Muscular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscular System Deck (112):
1

2 prefixes that mean/refer to muscle

myo
sarco

2

What are the three series-elastic components of muscular tissue?

The stretchy:
1. endomysium
2.perimysium
3. epimysium

3

Are the 3 series-elastic components of muscular tissue excitable?

NO but they do stretch and recoil
(dont contract)

4

In what type of pairs do voluntary muscle usually work?

Antagonistic

5

What happens to your muscles when you work out?

Do NOT make more fibers/muscle, you are making your fibers bigger

6

Do muscles expand?

NO they only contract
ex: muscle contracts to flex arm then an entirely diff. muscle contracts to bring arm back down

7

What is the name of the cell membrane in a muscle?

sarcolemma

8

Fascicle

a group of muscle fibers

9

Difference btwn perimysium, endomysium, and epimysium

Epimysium- surrounds whole muscle

Endomysium- wraps each individuals muscle fiber

Perimysium- surrounds each muscle fiber bundle, called fascicles

10

What do myofibril contain in a muscle cell?

Thin and thick filaments

11

What is the one neurotransmitter in skeletal muscle?

Acetylcholine

12

Acetylcholine

The ONLY one neurotransmitter in skeletal muscle

13

In which direction does a neuron nerve cell travel?

In the direction in which the axon is pointing; it's a one way street they can't go back the same way they came from

14

Where are neurotransmitters

In synaptic vesicles

15

How does a neuron move?

Electrical impulse forces calcium channels to come in and push synoptic vesicles to the end of the axon

16

From left to right, what is the anatomical structure of a neuron

dendrites, soma (body), axon (synaptic vesicles in membrane), gap/synapsis/junction, NEIGHBORING neuron

17

How does an electrical impulse get from one neuron to another?

Dendrites on the next cell/neuron have receptors for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, once they receive the acetylcholine the electrical impulse starts all over again on the new neuron

18

Why can't electrical impulses travel backwards?

There are no receptors on the front of the cell, only on the dendrites, and there is no acetylcholine in dendrites only receptors

19

Action potential

the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell

20

What are the only two types of cells that have action potential?

nerve cells and muscle cells

21

What happens when the acetylcholine goes to muscle fiber?

Goes to the synapse called neuromuscular junction and the muscle contracts

22

Neuromuscular junction

where neuron and muscle meet

23

What happens to acetylcholine after it does its job?

Acetylcholinesterase (enzyme) breaks it down then the neuron (it came from originally) picks up the broken down neurotransmitter and rebuilds it to use it again.

24

SSRI

Selective seratonin re-uptake inhibitor
ex: prozac, Zoloft, ect.

25

Sensory neurons

Going INTO the brain (Afferent)

26

Motor neurons

Going FROM brain to muscle (Efferent)

27

SAME

sensory---> afferent
motor-----> efferent

28

How many mitochondria do muscles have?

thousands

29

What does the sarcolemma consist of?

it has characteristic transverse (T) tubules which are continuous with the sarcolemma. The fibers are multi nucleic

30

What does the sarcoplasm contain?

Myofibrils made up of myofilaments
Abundant glycogen and myoglobin

31

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Stores CALCIUM

2 terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum join with avT tubule to constitute a triad.

32

Triad

A T tubule with terminal cistern on each side

33

Myoglobin

attracts oxygen that will help metabolize the glucose in glycogen

34

What happens when electrical impulse goes into T tubule?

Causes the swollen part of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (cisternae that stores calcium) to RELEASE the calcium

35

Are T tubules apart of the cell membrane (sarcolemma) ?

YES

36

Sarcomere

basic unit of muscle contraction

37

Myofilaments

CENTRAL to muscle contraction; two kinds: thick and thin

38

Thick myofilaments

Made of MYOSIN shaped somewhat like a gold club

39

Thin myofilaments

Made up go fibrous (skinny protein) ACTIN with bead-like subunits of globular actin, each of which has an active site that can find with the head of a myosin molecule

40

Tropomyosin

Lies within the fibrous actin; protein that consists of smaller proteins troponin

41

Regulatory proteins

Helps to regulate/control when muscle will contract; tropomyosin and troponin

42

If troponin hides active sites on a actin, how does myosin grab onto the actin to cause it to contract?

The myosin (thick filaments) are already cocked back but troponin is hiding active sites on actin. However, once calcium is released form the cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, it combines with the troponin and moves it so that myosin can grab onto the actin, release its cocked position, and cause the actin to contract.

43

What do myofibrils contain?

Thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments

44

What is in between two z-lines in a muscle fiber?

A sarcomere (filaments)

45

H-band

area where actin doesn't connect; just myosin. Kind of LIGHT

46

A-band

Both actin and myosin are there so it's therefore DARK on the ends

47

I-band

ONLY actin on the ends of each sarcomere; very LIGHT

48

Skeletal muscle is innervated by...

somatic motor neurons

49

Each muscle fiber is supplied by how many motor nerve fibers?

Only ONE

50

Motor unit

one nerve fiber and all the muscle fibers it interacted (one nerve can affect three different muscle cells for ex)

51

Does a motor unit behave as a single unit?

Yes it behaves as a single unit and contracts as one (contracts at same time)

52

What's the size of a motor unit?

They vary in size

53

Which has more FINE control: eye (23 muscles fibers/motor unit) or the thigh (500-1,000 muscle fibers/motor unit)?

The eye

54

What happens when there are multiple more units within a muscle?

They are able to work "in shifts"

55

When you flex a little, does that mean your muscles aren't fully contracting?

No it means that only SOME muscle fibers are contracting; fewer motor units. Muscle fibers either contract 100% or they doth contract at all.

56

Why do you flex harder when you are picking up heavier things? What is happening?

When you flex harder to pick up more, more minuscule fibers are contracting

57

Synapse

Contact point between a neuron and its target cell (either a muscle or another neuron)

58

What is the synapse called when the target cell of a neuron is a muscle cell?

Neuromuscular junction

59

Neuromuscular junction

The synapse when the target cell of a neuron is a muscle cell

60

Synaptic knob

The neurons expand into this at the neuromuscular junction

61

Motor end plate

Area on a muscle cell where muscle cell receives the neuronal message (has receptors)

62

Synaptic cleft

A tiny gap between two cells

63

What happens as a nervous impulse travels down the neuron?

It triggers the release of a neurotransmitter (always acetylcholine/ACh) from synaptic vesicles in the synaptic knob

64

Where are ACh receptors located?

In the motor end plate within infoldings called junctional folds.

65

What shows voltage changes after stimulation of muscle fibers and neurons (which are electrically excitable)?

Plasma membranes

66

Electrophysiology

The study of the electrical activity in cells; how electricity functions in our bodies

67

Electric potential

(In volts) the potential energy that results from a polarized state

68

RMP

Resting membrane potential- electricity not going through cell

69

Can a cell be polarized and exhibit a RMP?

Yes

70

What is RMP measured in and what is it determined by

mV and it's determined by:
1. diffusion of ions down their concentration gradients
2. selective permeability of the plasma membrane
3. electrostatic attraction

71

Is the electricity (charge) the same on the inside and the outside of a cell?

No they're different even in resting state therefore, it's considered polarized and to have a potential

72

What kind of pump is in the cell membrane of all cells?

Na+K+ATPase pump

73

What does the Na+K+ATPase pump do?

It pumps Na+ out of the cell because it doesn't want the cell to flood (water follows Na+) and it pumps K+ back in. Potassium is usually high inside the cell, Na+ is usually high outside of the cell, they both want to diffuse high---> low. ATPase is present because the pump uses a lot of energy.

74

Is there usually a higher concentration of Na+ inside or outside the cell?

outside

75

Is there usually a higher concentration of K+ inside or outside the cell?

inside

76

How often does the sodium-potassium pump work?

24/7

77

Na+ in relation to water

Where sodium goes, water follows

78

Normally, how is the RMP maintained?

By the sodium-potassium pump, which removes 3 sodium ions from the cell for every two potassium ions it brings in and therefore has the net effect of contributing to the negative intracellular charge.

79

Is inside the cell usually more neg. or positive?

Slightly more negative

80

Ratio of sodium to potassium after the workings of the pump?

3:2

81

What happens during depolarization?

The Na+ is rushing back into the cell (electrical current) from the pump, but a little too much goes back causing the cells to become slightly positive for a second

82

Hyperpolarization

Little too much Na+ goes back into cell leaving it slightly positive

83

When do we use ATP with muscle contraction?

When myosin sets up in cocked position BEFORE the muscle contracts

84

Review slide 23

muscular contraction and relaxation

85

What happens to action potentials in the nerve fiber during excitation?

Action potentials in the nerve fiber give rise to action potentials in the muscle fiber

86

What happens to action potentials in the synaptic knob during excitation?

They trigger the release of ACh from synaptic vesicles. ACh is released to the synaptic cleft; detected by the fated ion channels in the motor end plate

87

What happens when sodium ions rush into the muscle cell?

It quickly reverses polarity for a section of its cell memrane. as potassium ions rush out of the membrane, polarity is reestablished.

88

End-plate potential (EPP)

rapid change in polarity at the motor end plate

89

What does the EPP trigger?

The opening of sodium and potassium channels adjacent to the motor end plate-action potentials radiate from the plate in all directions

90

Where does the wave of action potential go after the EPP triggers the opening of Na+ and K+ channels?

It reaches T-tubules and terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum causing it to release calcium

91

During excitation-contraction coupling, what leads to activation of the myofilaments?

Action potentials in the muscle fiber

92

What happens after the action potential reached the sarcoplasmic reticulum?

It release a flood of calcium ions into the cytosol (cytoplasm/sarcoplasm)

93

What happens after calcium ions are released into the sarcoplasm?

Calcium ins bind to the troponin C of the thin myofilaments, causing the troponin-tropomyosin complex to shift aside, exposing the active sites on the actin filaments

94

What happens when troponin-tropomyosin complex shift aside?

The active sites on the actin filaments are exposed and the heads of myosin filaments can now bind to these active sites and initiate contraction.

95

Where is ATPase built into

The head of a myosin molecule of muscle

96

What causes the muscle fiber to shorten in contraction?

The sliding of the thin myofilaments (actin) past the thick ones

97

Does myosin shorten in contraction?

No it doesn't shorten, only actin does

98

The Sliding Filament Theory

Suggests that thin filaments slide over thick ones, causing sarcomeres to shorten

99

What happens to myosin in preparation for actin?

The myosin binds and hydrolyses an ATP molecule, and is now in the cocked position

100

What does the head of each myosin molecule contain?

Myosin ATPase that release energy from ATP

101

What happens when the myosin head connects with the active sites on actin?

Power stroke- the time period when cocked myosin releases and actin shortens

102

What happens at the end of a power stroke of myosin?

Myosin binds to a new ATP, releases the actin, and returns to its original position in a recovery stroke.

103

Does actin slip back into its original position after a power stroke?

No because many myosin heads pull on the actin at all times

104

How many times is the cycle of power stoke and recovery repeated during muscle contraction?

MANY times

105

What zone gets smaller as actin shorten and muscle contracts?

The H zone

106

Limited state of contraction

Muscles are always in a limited state of contraction even when at rest

107

Length-tonus relationship

Muscle fibers exhibit this; the tension generated by contraction depends on how stretched (realized) or contracted the fiber was to begin with

108

Weak contraction

Occurs if the muscle is already mostly contracted

109

What happens if the muscle is overly stretched?

Little overlap exists between actin and myosin filaments, and contraction can damage the muscle

110

What happens when nervous stimulation ceases?

The muscle relaxes

111

Acetylcholinesterase

Breaks down ACh so the muscle stops generating its action potentials (stops dead in its track; can't have contractions)

112

What happens to calcium during relaxation?

It's carried back to the sarcoplasmic reticulum by active transport and a protein