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Flashcards in Metabolism and Energetics Deck (47)
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1

Microbes must be able to use available ___ from their environment to make all ___/___ required for ___, ___, and ___

nutrients/macromolecules/chemicals/survival/growth/replication

2

What is anabolism?

production of macromolecules/chemicals from building blocks and ATP

3

What is the reducing power for anabolism provided by?

NAD(P)H+H

4

What is catabolism?

generation of energy (ATP) and reducing power (NADH+H) from nutrients, byproducts may be used for anabolism

5

culture medium is ___ to the microbe

specific

6

What are enzymes?

biological catalysts that lower the activation energy needed for reaction

7

What is delta G?

free energy

8

What do negative and positive values of delta G represent?

negative: release of energy
positive: absorption of energy

9

What is activation energy?

the energy required to put all molecules into reactive state

10

What is a catalyst?

a substance that lowers activation energy without changing the free energy, only changing the rate

11

REDOX reactions exist in pairs because e- cannot exist in ___, ___ of one substance is linked to the ___ of another

solution/oxidation/reduction

12

Oxidation is ___ of e-, reduction is ___ of e-

loss/gain

13

The e- donor is the ___ source

energy

14

___ provide the reducing power for the reactions

electron carriers

15

Energy-rich compounds are rich because they have high energy ___ that, when broken, release lots of energy

bonds

16

What are the three basic metabolic pathways?

glycolytic, pentose phosphate, and tricarboxylic acid pathways

17

What are the two series of reactions?

fermentation and respiration

18

Briefly describe fermentation

organic compounds are e- donors and acceptors, ATP is produced by substrate level phosphorylation

19

Briefly describe respiration

organic compounds are oxidized to CO2 with O2 or a substitute as the final e- acceptor, most ATP is produced by oxidative phosphorylation

20

What is the net yield of glycolysis?

- 1 glucose --> 2 pyruvate
- 2ATP (substrate level)
- 2NADH+H

21

What is the net yield of the citric acid cycle per cycle?

- pyruvate --> acetyl-CoA
- 2 CO2
- 1GTP--> 1ATP
- 3NADH+H
- 1FADH2

22

Where does pyruvate oxidation take place?

the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

23

What is the succinate dehydrogenase?

large PRO complex located in the membrane, linked to the citric acid cycle

24

What is the result of full oxidation of acetyl-CoA?

CO2

25

___ must be regenerated or TCA cycle stops

oxaloacetate

26

What is oxidative phosphorylation?

process that uses energy produced by respiration to synthesize ATP

27

What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

aerobic has O2 as the final e- acceptor

28

What is the respiration chain?

a series of e- and H+ carriers that undergo redox reactions

29

(ETC) When a reduced substance is oxidized (___) the ___ are transferred to a ___ carrier (FMN), the ___ are then transferred to the next carrier in the sequence

NADH/H+/H+/H+

30

(ETC) is the next carrier is an e- carrier the e- will be ___ and the protons will be ___, if the carrier after is a proton carrier ___ protons must be ___

accepted/released to the outer phase/2/taken in

31

In the final steps of the ETC, ___ and ___ from the ___ phase reduce O2-->H2O

2e-/2H+/inner

32

What are the official names and carriers for:
complex I, Q, complex II, complex III, cyt c, and complex IV

complex 1: NADH dehydrogenase, FMN (H+ carrier) and Fe-S (e- carrier)
Q: quinione (H+ carrier)
complex II: succinate dehydrogenase, FAD (H+ carrier)
complex III: cytochrome bc, Fe-S (e- carrier)
cyt c: cytochrome C (e- carrier)
complex IV: (e- carrier)

33

What is the proton motive force?

the result of respiration generates a transmembrane proton gradient which is a potential source of energy used to drive other energy requiring reactions

34

What is oxidative phosphorylation?

synthesis of ATP using the PMF

35

What is the proton motive force equation?

(pff) = (membrane potential) - [(z conversion factor)(transmembrane gradient)]

36

What is the net yield of energy from respiration?

2ATP+6ATP+(2x1ATP)+(2x2ATP)+(2x12ATP)=38ATP

37

When does fermentation happen?

When the terminal e- acceptor isn't available (O2) succinate cannot be oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase in the ETC

38

Glycolysis can happen as long as ___ can be oxidized back to ___

NADH+H/NAD

39

In fermentation ___ is the e- donor and ___ is the final electron acceptor

an organic compound/an organic degradation product

40

What is the pentose phosphate pathway?

an alternative to glycolysis, NADPH is used as the reducing power to convert glucose to other sugars, this contributes to a diversity of sugars in the cytoplasm

41

In the pentose phosphate pathway, ___ may be used to produce ribose then ___

ribose 5-phosphate/deoxyribose

42

What are the net products of the pentose phosphate pathway?

- 2NADPH
- 2CO2
- a sugar

43

What are some other roles of the citric acid cycle?

- alpha-ketoglutarate becomes the glutamate family
- oxaloacetate becomes the aspartate family

44

What are anapleurotic pathways?

pathways that feed the citric acid cycle intermediates

45

What are some locations of catabolism in eukaryotes?

TCA cycle, respiration, and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria and glycolysis and fermentation are in the cytoplasm

46

What are some locations of catabolism in prokaryotes?

respiratory chain in the cytoplasmic membrane, glycolysis, TCA cycle, and fermentation in the cytoplasm

47

True or false: the pentose phosphate pathway occurs in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

true