Structure and Function Flashcards Preview

LSCI 230 > Structure and Function > Flashcards

Flashcards in Structure and Function Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the three properties of cells?

metabolism, growth, and evolution

2

Describe metabolism in cells

cells take up nutrients and expel then as waste

3

Describe growth in cells

nutrients from the environment become new cell material with become new cells

4

Describe evolution in cell

cells evolve and display new properties, shown in phylogenic trees

5

Define differentiation

some cells form new structures

6

Define communication

interactions via chemical messengers

7

Define genetic exchange

DNA from donor to recipient via several mechanisms

8

Define motility

self-propulsion

9

What are the genetic functions of cells?

DNA replication, transcription, RNA translation into proteins

10

What are the catalytic functions of cells?

energy conservation, metabolism, enzymes

11

Why are smaller cells more efficient?

the ratio of surface area/volume

12

What are the parts of prokaryotes?

cell wall, cell membrane, plasmid, cytosol, ribosomes, nucleoid

13

What are the parts of eukaryote cells?

nuclear membrane, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi complex, endoplasmic reticulum, cell wall, cell/cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasm, ribosomes

14

What is the role of the membrane?

prevents leakage, functions as a gateway for transport in/out, anchors proteins, site of the usage and conservation of the proton motive force

15

What is the ratio of PRO to lipids in the membrane?

<50%

16

What are the types of membrane PRO?

sensors, adhesions, transporters, enzymes

17

Describe the phospholipid bilayer (bacteria and eukaryotes)

hydrophilic exterior, hydrophobic interior; phosphatidylethanolamine+2 fatty acids+glycerol+phosphate+ethanolamine

18

Describe the membrane of archaea

either bilayer or monolayer

19

How is the membrane stabilized?

in eukaryotes it is stabilized with sterols, in bacteria/archaea it is stabilized by hopanoids

20

What is the makeup of sterols?

polar head (rigid planar ring structure)+non-polar hydrocarbon chain

21

How is DNA stored in eukaryotes?

linear, double stranded, generally diploid, packages in chromosomes within the nucleus

22

Define chromosome

chromatin fibres made by histone packages

23

What is the nucleolus?

stress the DNA that codes for rRNA, a ribosomal PRO

24

How is DNA stored in bacteria/archaea?

circular, double stranded, generally haploid, packaged with PRO to form chromosomes, DNA is in the cytoplasm, rRNA is encoded on the chromosome, may also contains plasmids

25

Proteins are made by ___ (replicated by ___)'s ___ strand being transcribed by ___, which creates ___ which is translated in the ___ to form amino acids

DNA/DNA polymerase/bottom/RNA polymerase/RNA/ribosome

26

What is the ribosome?

made up of rRNA and PRO, translates mRNA to amino acid chains to form PRO

27

Where are ribosomes located in eukaryotes?

free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum

28

Where are ribosomes located in prokaryotes?

free in the cytoplasm or attached to the cytoplasmic membrane

29

___ subunit ribosomes are in eukaryotes and ___ subunit are in prokaryotes

80/70

30

Define Svedberg unit

description of a state of sedimentation of particle in ultracentrifuge, proportional to size, shape, and density, but not a linear relationship