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1

Define microbiology

the study of microorganisms

2

Define microorganisms

organisms that can't be seen by the naked eye because they're microscopic

3

What are the characteristics of microorganisms?

they can generate energy and grow without the help of other cells

4

Define biofilms

communities where microbes can communicate and initiate group behaviour

5

What century were microscopes invented in?

17th

6

What was Robert Hooke's contribution?

1665: gave cells their name, published first accurate microscopic drawings

7

What was Antoni van Leeuwenhoek's contribution?

1684: "father of microbiology", published first microbe drawing

8

The causes of infectious disease were unknown until ___

19th century

9

What did poor medical knowledge lead to?

inaccurate theories about disease cause, witch hunts, inappropriate treatment

10

What is spontaneous generation?
What was thought to be needed in order for it to happen?

- the theory that some vital force can create living organisms from inanimate objects
- fresh air

11

What was Francesco Redi's contribution?

1600: demonstrated meat didn't produce maggots if it was covered with gauze

12

What was Lazzaro Spallanzani's contribution?

1800: demonstrated nothing grew in boiled/sealed liquids

13

What was Ignaz Semelweis's contribution?

1847: showed childbed fever (puerperal sepsis) is contagious and washing hands in chlorine solution was a solution

14

What was Joseph Lister's contribution?

1867: found phenol solution reduced death from infection after surgery

15

What was Robert Koch's contribution?

1877: anthrax was caused by bacillus anthracis and tuberculosis was also caused by bacteria (1882)

16

What did Pasteur's experiment prove?

microbes were present in the air and a possible source of infection

17

What came of Pasteur's findings?

sterilization, pasteurization, vaccines

18

Who wrote the Diagnostic Bacteriologique?

Dr. Trouessart

19

What are the types of microorganisms?

- prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea)
- eukaryotes (protazoa, algae, fungi, plant cells, animal cells)
- viruses/viroids/prions

20

What is LUCA?

Last Common Known Ancestor

21

Microbes on Earth: ___% marine subsurface, ___% terrestrial surface, ___% surface soil, ___% oceans, ___% other

66/26/4.8/2.2/1.0

22

True or false: microbes have been present anywhere scientists have looked, even in extreme conditions

true

23

Which industries specifically are microbes crucial for?

the food industry, the pharmaceutical industry, the agriculture industry, the environmental industry