Flashcards in Metabolism - Appetite Deck (19)
What hormones stimulate the inhibitory primary neurone to send a message to the secondary neurone in appetite control?
What hormone stimulates the stimulatory primary neurone to stimulate the secondary neurone in appetite control?
What hormone inhibits the stimulatory primary neurone to stop it stimulating the secondary neurone in appetite control?
What neurotransmitters are present at the primary to secondary neurone of the stimulatory pathway in appetite control?
Agouti related peptide
Neuro peptide Y
What neurotransmitters are present at the primary to secondary neurone of the inhibitory pathway in appetite control?
POMC to give alpha MSH (surpresses appetite) and beta endorphin (reward for eating)
What is ghrelin and where is it released?
Peptide hormone that stimulates appetite
Released from stomach wall WHEN EMPTY
Release is inhibited when stomach is full
What is PYY and where is it released?
It is a peptide hormone that suppresses the appetite
Released from the wall of the small intestine WHEN CHYME IS PRESENT
Where is the body's appetite centre?
In the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus
How can the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus detect fatty acid levels?
There is no blood brain barrier present at this point.
What is leptin and where is it released?
A peptide hormone which surpresses appetite and induces expression of uncoupling proteins in mitochondria (= energy dissipated as heat).
Released from adipocytes
In genetic terms, what is leptin deficiency caused by, and what is the result?
A recessive genetic disorder arising from a single nucleotide deletion.
Causes hyperphagia (increased appetite) and therefore obesity.
What does the secondary neurone in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus do?
Synthesises the input and generates a response.
Who accepts metabolic syndrome?
WHO but not all clinicians
What are some symptoms of metabolic syndrome?
What are some of the WHO criteria for metabolic syndrome to be diagnosed?
Fasting glucose > 7.8mMol
TAGs > 1.7mMol
Waist to hip ratio > 0.9 (men) or > 0.85 (women)
BP above 140/90mmHg
What was the 1991 Barker hypothesis?
Those with low birth weight often had CHD, high BP etc in adulthood.
What is epigenetics and how may it arise?
Epigenetics is the inheritance of a phenotype as a result of changes in a chromosome, without changes to the DNA sequence.
e.g. DNA methylation at key points can suppress gene transcription by altering histone structure = switches genes on or off
What is foetal programming?
Epigenetics occurring in utero.