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Flashcards in ToB - Internal Surfaces Deck (10):
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What are the 2 types of membranes that may cover internal surfaces?

Serous
Mucous

1

What do serous membranes secrete, where and what do they consist of?

Secrete a watery fluid for lubrication
Consist of simple squamous epithelia and a thin CT layer
There are 2 layers (parietal and visceral) which line closed body cavities
- peritoneal
- pericardial sac
- pleural sac

2

What do mucous membranes secrete, where and what do they consist of?

Secrete mucous
Consist of epithelia, layer of CT (lamina propria) and in the GI tract, muscularis mucosae.
Can be found:
- GI tract
- respiratory tract
- urinary tract

3

What are the layers of the GI tract like?

Oesophagus, stomach, jejeunum and colon.

All have:
Epithelia
Lamina propria
Muscularis mucosae (thin in the colon)
Submucosa
Muscularis externa (3 layers in stomach though)

4

How is the internal surface of the stomach adapted?

The gastric mucosa is folded into rugae = increases s.a.

5

How is the internal surface of the jejeunum adapted?

It has plicae circulares, folds of mucosa and submucosa to increase s.a.
The epithelia also have villi for this function

6

What are the crypts of lieberkühn and where are they found?

Found on the colon. These contain:
- goblet cells which produce mucous
- peyers patches which contains lymphoid tissue = fight microbes
- absorbative cells which can take in electrolytes and water.

7

What are the 2 main parts of the urinary tract and their internal surface structure?

Ureter
- transitional epithelia
- lamina propria (containing elastic fibres)
- mucularis externa

Bladder
- transitional epithelia
- lamina propria (containing smooth muscle)
- 3 layers of muscularis externa

8

How is the bladder kept impermeable to urine?

Thick membrane of epithelia with tight intercellular junctions.

9

What are the 4 parts of the respiratory tract and what are their internal surfaces made of?

1). Trachea
- epithelia (p)
- lamina propria
- submucosa (with seromucous glands to kill microbes)
- cartilage
- adventitia

2). Bronchus
- epithelia (p)
- lamina propria
- muscularis mucosae
- submucosa (with seromucous glands to kill microbes)
- cartilage

3). Bronchioles
- epithelia (scc)
- lamina propria
- muscularis mucosae
- Clara cells (produce surfactant that protects bronchioles lining)

4). Alveoli
- epithelia (sse)
- macrophages as cuboidal cells produce surfactant, not mucus.