Flashcards in Metabolism - Energy Storage Deck (12)
What are the steps of glycogen synthesis and the enzymes used?
Glucose + ATP ---> ADP + G6P
G6P ---> G1P
G1P + UTP + H2O ---> UDPGlucose + Pi
UDPGlucose + glycogen ---> more glycogen + UDP
Glycogen synthase/branching enzyme
How is glycogen synthesis and breakdown regulated?
Insulin dephosphorylates and therefore stimulates glycogen synthase, and inhibits glycogen phosphorylase
Glucagon and adrenaline phosphorylate and therefore inhibits glycogen synthase, and stimulates glycogen phosphorylase.
When does glycogen degradation occur in the skeletal muscle and liver?
Liver during fasting or stress
Skeletal muscle during intense exercise
What are the steps of glycogen degradation?
Glycogen + Pi ---> G1P + less glycogen
Glycogen phosphorylase/debranching enzyme
G1P ---> G6P
G6P enters glycolysis
G6P + H2O ---> Glucose + Pi
(Glucose enters bloodstream)
What is Von Gierkes disease?
A deficiency in glucose-6-phosphatase
= excess glycogen stored in liver = liver damage
How may disorders diminishing glycogen stores result?
Around what hour after eating does gluconeogenesis begin?
What enzymes are required for gluconeogenesis?
What can be fed into gluconeogenesis?
Glycerol (derived from fat metabolism)
Gluconeogeneic amino acids
Why can fatty acids not be converted directly into glucose?
Because they form acetyl CoA first, and step 10 in glycolysis is irreversible = can't work back.
Where does gluconeogenesis occur and what is its purpose?
In liver and kidney cortex in extreme conditions (as it is highly metabolically active so is desperate for glucose)
It produces new glucose from non carbohydrate precursors.