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Flashcards in Metabolism S12 - Control of metabolism Deck (18):
1

What are maternal adaptations to pregnancy?

- Adjust maternal blood concentrations of nutrients

- Modify nutrient stores to cope with demand, mainly fat stores

2

What metabolic changes occur during the first half of pregnancy?

- Stimulus to appetite

- Store more fat and glycogen

- Higher insulin:anti-insulin ratio

3

What are beta-cell responses to pregnancy?

Hyperplasia, hypertrophy, increased insulin synthesis and secretion

4

What metabolic changes occur during the second half of pregnancy?

- Lower insulin:anti-insulin ratio

- Reduce maternal utilisation of glucose switching to fatty acids and release of fatty acid stores

5

Where are anti-insulins produced?

First the ovary and then the placenta secretes huge amounts of oestrogen and progesterone which all makes muscles resistant to insulin

6

What is maternal ketogenesis?

Decrease in insulin:anti-insulin ratio means the increased availability of fatty acids are converted to ketone bodies in the liver which are used as fuel by the developing fetal brain

7

What is gestational diabetes?

Maternal B-cells do not respond normally to increased insulin resulting in elevated blood glucose levels Usually occurs in the third trimester

8

What are the consequences of gestational diabetes?

- Excess fetal growth

- Can result in type II diabetes

9

What is the purpose of change during exercise?

- Meet the acute oxygen and metabolic fuel needs of muscles

- Dispose of carbon dioxide and other waste products of metabolism

- Minimise disturbances to other physiological systems

10

What does the metabolic response to exercise depend on?

Type of exercise, intensity of and duration of exercise, physical condition and nutritional state of individual

11

What changes occur running 100m?

- Cannot deliver extra oxygen to muscles in time

- ATP stores regenerated anaerobically producing lactate

- Cannot deliver extra glucose to muscles in time

- Need glycogen store, spares blood glucose

12

What are the different phases of response to 1500m?

1) Initial sprint - muscle ATP and creatine phosphate used

2) Long middle phase - aerobic metabolism of glucose from glycogen and fatty acids

3) Finishing sprint - Anaerobic metabolism of glucose from glycogen

13

What are the disadvantages of fatty acids as feels?

- Slow release from adipose tissue

- Limited carrying capacity in the blood bound to albumin

- Capacity limited uptake across mitochondrial membrane

- Can only occur in aerobic conditions

14

What metabolic changes occur when running a marathon?

- 95% aerobic

- Muscle glycogen depleted in a few minutes

- Use of glucose from liver glycogen peaks at an hour then declines

- Utilisation of fatty acids rises steadily from 20-30 minutes into exercise

15

What hormonal changes occur when running a marathon?

- Insulin levels fall slowly

- Glucagon levels rise

- Adrenaline and growth hormone rise rapidly

- Cortisol rises slowly

16

List the benefits of exercise

- Better balance of lean tissue and fat

- Lower blood lipids

- Lower blood pressure

- Improve glucose tolerance

- Improve muscle sensitivity to insulin

17

What is the cardiovascular response to training?

Lower resting heart rate Heart becomes more efficient at pumping blood

18

What is the skeletal muscle response to training?

More and bigger fibres, more capillaries, more myoglobin, better fatty acid oxidation capacity, increased glycogen storage, increased glucose transport capacity