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Flashcards in HaDPop Glossary Deck (35)
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The simultaneous recording of demographic data by the government at a particular time pertaining to all persons who live in a particular territory


Crude birth rate

The number of live births per 1,000 population in a given year


General fertility rate

The number of live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 year olds in a given year


Total fertility rate (TFR)

The average number of children that would be born to a hypothetical woman in her life


Crude death rate

The number of deaths per 1,000 in a given year


Age-specific death rate

The number of deaths per 1,000 in a specific age range in a given year


Standard mortality ratio

Compares numbers of observed and expected deaths is age-sex distributions in a population were identical



The number of new cases of a disease in a given time period

(The tap)



The number of people affected by a disease - no time period; NOT A RATE (the bath tub)

Prevalence = incidence x length of disease

P = I x L


Incidence rate

(number of new cases) / (population x time)

Normal unit = people-years


Incidence rate ratio

(Exposed incidence rate) / (not exposed incidence rate)


Absolute risk

Absolute risk measures the size of a risk in a person or group of people (Eg absolute risk of an individual developing Alzheimer's as they age)


Relative risk

Relative risk compares a risk in two different groups of people

Eg Relative risk of diabetes between obese and normal weighted people


Confounding factor

A factor which is associated to both disease of interest and the exposure of interest without being part of the causal pathway


Confidence interval

A range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the true value of a parameter lies within it (Eg 95%)


Statistical significance

If the results of a test have statistical significance, it means that they are not likely to have occurred by chance alone. In such cases, we can be more confident that we are observing a 'true' result


Cohort study

This study follows a people over a period of time to see how their exposure affects their outcome,

Starts with OUTCOME FREE individuals


Survival bias

The logical error of only concentrating on those who survived a situation, and overlooking those who didn't. Can result in false conclusions being drawn


Observational study

A study where the exposure cannot be varied. Instead people are just observed


Odds ratio

Odds ratio compare the odds of an outcome in an exposed group compared to an unexposed group


Case-control study

The study compares a group of people with a condition with a group who do not, the study then looks back over time to see how conditions/ exposures vary


Retrospective study

Relies on data previously collected (as medical records reports). Recall bias (where information was reported incorrectly) can make this type of study inaccurate


Recall bias

Where information was recorded and reported incorrectly. Particularly important when considering retrospective studies


Prospective study

Has a specific outcomes and recruits suitable participants. Observes exposures and outcomes in these people over time (months/years)


Nested case-control study

A case-control study nested inside a cohort study



The study of health related states or events in a specific population and the application of this study to control the health problems


Experimental study

This is a study where the conditions are under direct control of the investigator. This usually involves giving a group of people a variable which does not normally arise. A common use of experimental studies is to see how a treatment affects people compared to a group of people not receiving treatment


Non-Randomised study

In this type of study, individuals are not randomly assigned to a particular intervention type. Allocation bias and confounding factors may cause distorted results


Randomised controlled trial

This is a study where individuals are randomly assigned an intervention type - this could be two treatments, treatment + no treatment or treatment + placebo. This study type is the best way to find whether the treatment is effective



This means both investigators and participants know who is getting which treatment - there is no blinding. This can cause bias as patients may change their behaviour or investigators may cause measurement bias. If clinicians are involved, they could introduce non-treatment effect as they change their treatment or attention to the patient