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Flashcards in ToB S6 - Skin Deck (14)
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What variation in macroscopic structures of the skin are there?

1) Colour

2) Hair

3) Thickness

4) Laxity/waxiness

5) Oiliness


What are the 4/5 layers of skin?

Come Lets Get Sun Burnt

1) Horny layer (stratum corneum)

2) Stratum lucidum (found only in the palms and soles) 

3) Stratum granulosum (Granular layer)

4) Stratum spinosum (prickle cell layer

5) Stratum basale (basal layer)


What is responsible for skin colour?



What is alopecia areata?

An autoimmune attack against hair follicles


What is vitiligo?

- An autoimmune disease in which the immune system attacks melanocytes, usually in symmetrical localised areas of the skin

- Causes well-demarcated pigmentation

- No clear explanations for the symmetrical nature of vitiligo


Describe the main functions of the skin

1) Barrier function of the skin

2) Sensation

3) Thermoregulation

4) Psychosexual communication


Describe psoriasis

A disorder of epidermal growth and differentiation

- A very common skin disease (2% of the population)

- Cause is unknown, but runs in families; genetic factors

- Associated with extreme proliferation of the epidermal basal layer

- Causes gross thickening of the stratum spinosum layered excessive production of the stratum corneum

- This manifests clinically as excessive scaling


Describe a malignant melanoma

- An aggressive malignant tumour of melanocytes

- Retention of tumour cells above the epidermal basement membrane is associated with a good prognosis

- More penetrating 'nodular' melanomas may have a very poor prognosis

- Common moles are benign growths of melanocytes, but may sometimes be difficult to distinguish from melanomas clinically


What are melanocytes? Where are they found?

- Dendritic cells of neural crest origin which secrete melanin

- Found in basal layer of epidermis


What are Langerhans cells? Where are they found?

- Dendritic cells of bone marrow organ which are antigen presenting cells

- Found in the stratum spinosum


Describe the process of keratinocyte differentiation

1) Keratinocytes produced by mitotic division in the stratum basale

2) Terminal differentiation begins in prickle cell layer and keratinocytes loose ability to divide

3) In granular layer, plasma membrane lost and corneocytes form which are destined for the stratum corneum

4) Takes 30-40 days


What unique structure is found in the granular layer?

Keratohyalin granules


What does the dermis consist of?

1) Dense irregular connective tissue

2) Skin appendages

3) Immediate subcutaneous fat


Why is vitiligo less obvious in a caucasian individual?

Paler skin so depigmentation less obvious than in a dark skinned individual