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Flashcards in ToB Slides Deck (89):
1

A - Unusually large thyroid follicle containing shrunken colloid 

B - Shrinkages of thyroid lobules during tissue processing causes artefactual spaces at the septa 

C - The tyroid is composed of numerous follicles. The colloid in some have fallen out during tissue processing

D & E- A fibrous capsule envelops the thyroid gland. Septa derived from the capsule subdivides the gland into lobules 

 

2

A - Simple cuboidal epithelia 

 

B - Thyroid colloid - a glycoprotein complex of thyroglbulin which incorporates thyroid hormones prior to their release

3

A - Longitudinal muscle layer 

B - Circular muscle layer 

C - Submucosa - loose connective tissue under a mucous membrane

D - Region of epithelium and subtending lamina propria (loose connective tissue)

E - Intestinal villi - increase the jejunal surface area. An examination of the edge of a villus at high power reveals the simple columar epithelium 

4

A - Brush border of microvilli 

B - A pale-staining goblet cell which secretes mucus 

C - Simple columnar epithelium - containing dark basally positioned nuclei

D - The epithelium rests upon a basement membrane

E - Subtending loose connective tissue, called lamina proproa, carries fine blood vessels and lymph vessels 

5

Label the trachea 

A - Mucus secreting goblet cells 

B - Cilia line the upper respiratory tract

C - Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelim lines the tracheal lumen

D - Submucosa containing seromucous glands (depth varies depending on location) 

E - An artefactual split in the perichondrium

F - Hyaline cartilage containing chondrocytes

G - The basement membrane of respiratory epithelium (can only really be seen on tracheal slide with H & E stain)

6

Label the oesophagus 

A - Muscularis mucosae (the muscular layer of this mucous membrane complex)

B - Stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelium 

C - The oesophageal lumen is convoluted but opens up during swallowing 

D - Submucosa - dense fibroelastic connective tissue containing glands 

E - Muscularis externa - an outer longitudinal and an inner circular muscle laye. Can be a mixture of smooth and skeletal muscle 

7

Label the oesophagus 

A - Oesophageal lumen 

B - Stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelium 

C - Cells in the middle of the epithelium are polymorphous (have many shapes)

D - The deepest epithelial cells are cuboidal 

E - Cells are squamous (flattened) near the epithelial surface but remain nucleated 

F - Lamina propria - looses connective tissue beneath the epithelium. Interdigitation of lamina propria and epithelium reduces the likelihood of shearing 

8

What type of epithelia is this?

Transitional epithelia of the bladder

9

What type of epithelia is this and where is it found?

Simple cuboidal epithelium lining collecting ducts of the kidney 

10

Wht structure is this and where is it found?

Glomerulus found in the kidney

11

What type of epithelia line this blood vessel?

Simple squamous lining - Lines all vascular elements and is termed endothelium 

12

What structure is this? 

Label the diagram

Pancreatic duct

A - Simple cuboidal epithelium lining a pancreatic duct 

B - Connective tissue

13

What type of epithelia is this and from which structure do they come from?

Simple columnar epithelium lining the fallopian tube of the uterus 

 

Some cells are cilliated (see arrow) 

14

What type of cells line the colloid and where is it found?

Simple cuboidal epithelium bounding thyroid gland follicles (follicular cells)

 

The epithelial cells synthesise thyroxine, store it in colloid, and transport it to the bloodstream

 

Arrows show fine blood capillaries

15

Label the structure 

Where is this found and what type of epithelia?

A - Epidermis 

B - Dermis 

 

Skin - stratified squamous keratinised epithelium

16

What is this a transverse section of?

Simple cuboidal epithelium lining collecting ducts of the kidney

17

What structure is this?

Simple cuboidal epithelium lining the secretory portion of the sweat gland (a coiled tubular gland)

18

What is the arrow pointing to and where is this section found?

Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium of the trachea 

 

The cilia beat at 12Hz within a watery sol exuded by the epithelium. Above this is a viscoeleastic mucous blanket, secreted by the goblet cells, which immobilises particles and lubricates their passage to the pharynx, where they are swallowed 

19

What type of epithelia is this and where is this section from?

Simple columnar epithelium of the gall bladder 

 

These cells absorb water and electrolytes from the bile produced by the liver, thus reducing its volume

20

Label the picture

A - Simple squamous epithelium lines the lumen of an arteriole 

V - Venule 

L - Lyphatic 

D - duct lined by stratified columnar epithelium 

21

What is this structure?

Crypts of Lieberkuhn in the colon in transverse

 

Simple columnar epithelium 

22

What is this structure?

Villus in small intestine 

 

The lacteal is a dilated lymphatic capillary vessel 

23

Label the diagram

A - Transitional epithelium or urothelium of the relaxed ureter

 

B - Connective tissue containing blood vessels 

24

What is this structure and what epithelia can be found here?

Stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelium lining the vagina. The cells are rich in glycogen, a substrte for numerous lactobacilli which produce lactic acid and thereby maintain a suitibly low pH

 

These epithelial cells atrophy in the absence of hormonal stimulation (pre-puberty and menpause)

25

What is this structure?

Simple columnar epithelium of adjacent villi of the small intestine 

Note the brush border 

G - goblet cells

26

What is this structure? 

Pseudostratified epithelium in the interlobular duct of a parotid gland, which serves as a conduit for saliva 

27

Label

A - Stratified squamous non-keratinised epithelim lines one side of the epiglotis and pseudostratified epithelia on the other 

 

B - Elastic cartilage 

28

Label and name this structure

A - Dead keratinised epidermal cells 

 

B - Living epidermal cells 

 

C - Dermis (connective tissue)

29

Name the structure

Transitional epithelium of the distended bladder 

30

What gland is this?

Unicellular goblet cells in the upper respiratory epithelium

31

Label this structure. What is this structure

The outer cortex of the adrenal gland

A - Capsule 

B - Zona glomerulosa 

C - Zona fasciculata

 

 

32

Label

Cells of the submandibular salivary gland

 

S - Serous cells

M - Mucous cells

 

33

Label the structure 

SGC - Sebaceous gland undergoing holocrine secretion to fill the hair follicle (HF) with sebum

34

Name this structure

Typical mixed secretory end-poeces of the submandibular gland showing tubular mucus-secreting glands capped with cresent-shaped serous cells

35

Name this structure

Three islets of Langerhaans surrounded by exocrine pancreatic acini

36

Label

Cells of the parathyroid 

A - Cheif cells 

B - Oxyphil cells 

C - Adipose cells 

37

Label the Zones

A - Zona fasciulata 

B - Zona reticularis

C - Medulla

38

What is this structure

Label

Muscularis externa of gut wall

A - Inner circular layer of smooth muscle (Note the nuclei in the centre of cells) 

 

B - Outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle (note cigar shaped nuclei in these relaxed cells) 

39

Label the jejunum 

A- Villi 

B - Muscularis mucosae 

C - Muscularis externa

D - Jejunal mucoa

E - Submucosa

40

What is this structure 

Label

Oesophagus 

A - Muscularic externa

B - Epithelium

C - Lamina propria 

D - Muscularic mucosae

E - Submucosa

F - Mucosa (3 layers) 

L - Lumen

41

Label

What are the two structures in this image?

A - Bone tissue

B - Cartilage 

C - Fibroelastic membrane

D - Trachea 

E - Eosophagus

42

Label the stomach 

A - Muscularis mucosae 

B - Gastric mucosa (secretes acid, digestive enzymes and gastrin) 

C - Rugae: folds of gastic mucosa forming longitudinal ridges in empty stomach

D - Submucosa

E - Muscularis externa 

43

Label the wall of trachea

A - Epithelium 

B - Lamina propria 

C - Submucosa with seromucous glands 

D - C-shaped hyaline cartilage 

 

44

Label the large intestine 

A - Numerous crypts of Lieberkuhn 

B - Peyer's patch (lymphoid tissue)

C - Mucosa

D - Submucosa

E - Muscularis externa 

45

Label the bronchus

A - Cresent shaped cartilage 

B - Psudostratified ciliated epithelium 

C - Smooth muscle 

D - Glands in the submucosa

46

Label the ureter

A - Transitional epithelium 

B - Fibroelastic lamina propria 

C - circular muscularis externa 

47

What is this?

Sebaceous gland

48

Describe the structure of this gland

49

Label the urethra of the penis

A - Stratified columnar epithelium; lines much of the male penile urethra

B - Lumen - has irrigular outline due to deep outpocketing which are continuous with paraurethral glands

C - Paraurethral glands - lubricate the urethra with a mucoid secretion 

D - Numerous blood sinuses ( become engorged during erection creating pressure which restricts venous outflow 

50

Label the epididymus

A - Stereocillia; protrude into the lumen 

B - Pseudostratified columnar epithelium lines the epididymal duct

C - Maturing spermatozoa

D - Tgin layer of smooth muscle. The rythmic contraction smove the spermatozoa along the highly convoluted tubule (7M long) towards the vas deferens

51

Label the jejunum

A - Mucus secreted by goblet cells ( Alcian blue stain mucin a vivid blue) 

B - Brush border of microvili 

C - Goblet cells interspersed amongst the simple columnar epithelial cells

D - Basaly positioned nuceli of the simple columnar epithelial cells 

E - Basement membrane 

F - A narrow stalk connects the upper part of each goblet cell to the basement membrane 

52

Label the submandibular gland

 

A - Mucous cells of a mixed seromucus acinus with a central acinar lumen. Mucus stains very weakly with H&E having a pale foamy appearance 

B - The lumen of the acinus 

C - Nuclei of mucous cells - condensed and basally positioned

D - Serous cells; produce enzymes stored as zymogen

53

Label the adrenal gland

A - Zona glomerulosa; secretes mineralocorticoticoids, primarily aldosterone 

B - Zona fasciculata; Secretes glucocorticoid hormones, principally cortisol

C - Zona reticularis; Secretes androgens

D - Adrenal medulla; secrete catecholamines adrenaline and noradrenaline

54

Label the inner adrenal cortex

A -Zona reticularis; Secrete androgens 

B - Numerous sinosoids; channel blood through the adrenal medulla towards the central medullary vein 

C - Chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla that secrete adrnaline, noradrenaline and enkephalins, an opiod peptide involved in the control of pain 

55

Label the skin 

A - Dermis 

B - Stratum corneum 

C - Epidermis 

D - Blood vessel int he dermis 

56

What is this positioned in the dermis?

Sweat gland duct

57

Fill in the blanks 

Fibrous sheath

Artefactual split

Fibroblast

58

Label 

A - Zona glomerulosa 

B - The capsule of the adrenal gland 

C - Where the lipid would be - dissolved by xylene 

D - Unilocular fat cells (white adipose tissue) 

59

Label the bronchiole 

A - Simple ciliated columnar epithelium

B - Smooth muscle 

C & D - Alveoli 

 

Note - no cartilage, the surrounding alveoli keep the lumen open 

60

What is the arrow pointing at in the small intestine?

Microvilli brush border

61

Label this lmphocyte 

A - Glycocalyx 

B - Cytoplasm

C - Nucleus 

D - Plasma mebrane 

62

A - Capillary bearing red blood cells 

B - Specialized, almost gelatin-like ground substance occupies the large intercellular spaces 

C - Spindle-shaped mesenchymal cells 

63

Label the loose connective tissue 

A - Fibroblast 

B - Collagen 

C - Plasma cells

D - Endothelial & mast cells 

E - Macrophage 

F - The cells, fibres and blood vessels all lie in a ground substanceconsisting of hyaluronate proteoglycan aggregates 

G - Lymphocytes 

H - Adipose cells 

I - Eosinophil

J - Blood vessels 

K - Elastic fibres 

 

64

Fill in the gaps

Fibroblast 

Collagen fibres

Procollagen

Fibroblasts secrete 

65

Label the small elastic artery layers

A - Tunica intima (Indistinct endothelial cells) 

B - Tunica media (elastin lamellae) 

C - Tunica adventitia (collagen)

66

Label the layers of the aorta

A - Tunica intima (thin layer)

B - Tunica media (thick layer with many elstic lamellae) 

67

Label this dense irregular tissue 

A - Elastic fibres

B - Collagen

68

What type of connective tissue is this?

Tendon - Dense regular connective tissue 

69

What is this structure 

Label

Myotendinous junction - sarcolemma always lies between muscle and tendons

A - Fibroblasts 

B - Tendon 

C - Muscle fibre 

 

70

Fill in the gaps and label 

Blood monocyte 

loose connective tissue 

A - Phagocytic vacuole 

B - Lysosome 

C - Pinocytic vesicle 

71

Label

A - Hyaline Cartilage 

B - Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium and subtending submucosa containing secretory glands 

C - Perichondrium

D - Hyaline

E - Chondrocyte 

F - Chondroblast 

72

Fill in 

Chondrocytes 

Lacuna 

Collagen

Elastin 

Glycosaminoglycans 

Proteoglycans 

Appositional growth 

 

73

Fill in

Chondrocytes of articular cartilage 

Hyaluronic acid-protein

High water

Cannot repai

74

What type of cartilage is this?

What has happened to the chondrocytes?

Elastic cartilage 

The chondrocytes in this slide have shrunken, or fallen out, during tissue processing. The walls of the lacunae show th positions they had occupied. 

 

More chondrocytes in elastic cartilage than in hyaline cartilage 

75

Label the decalcified bone 

A - Osteon - concentric lamellae

B - Haversian canal

C - Lacunae - space occupied by osteocytes 

76

Label

A - Dense connective tissue 

B - Perichondrium 

C - Growing cartilage 

D - Territorial matrix 

E - Interterritorial matrix 

F - Chondrocytes 

77

Label

A - Hyaline cartilage

B - Spongy or cancellous bone 

C - Epiphysis 

D - Hyaline cartilage 

E - Metaphysis 

F - Compact bone 

G - Diaphysis 

78

Label

A - Muscle 

B - Fibrocollagenous tissue 

C - Epidermis 

D - Elastic cartilage 

E - Dermis 

F - Adipose tissue 

79

Label 

A - Type I collagen bundle 

B - Hyaluronate proteoglycan aggregate 

C - Chondrocytes 

80

Classify this type of bone

Decalcified mature bone 

81

Label

A - Haversian canals

B - Volkmans canals (no concentric lamellae) 

82

Label

A - Osteocyte

B - Canaliculi 

83

Fill in 

A cutting cone 

Osteoclasts 

Bone 

Cutting cone 

84

Label the zones 

A - Zone of reserve cartilage ( no cellular proliferation or active matrix production) 

B - Zone of proliferation (cells actively dividing to form columns; cells enlarge and secrete matrix) 

C - Zone of hypertrophy (cells enlarge greatly. Matrix compressed into linear bands between cell columns) 

D - Zone of calcified cartilage (Enlarged cells begin to degenerate and matrix calcifies) 

E - Zone of resorption (in which the calcified matrix is in direct contact with the marrow cavity. Small blood vessels and connective tissue invade the region occupied by the dying chondrocytes, leaving the calcified cartilage as spicules between them. Bone is laid down in these cartilage spicules) 

85

Label

A - Epidermis 

B - Dermis 

C - Sweat glands 

D - Arrector pilli muscle 

E - Blood vessels 

86

Label the fibres

A - Red fibres

B - White fibres

87

Label

A - Epimysium 

B - Tendon 

C - Endomysium

D - Perimysium 

E - Fascicle (wrapped in perymysium) 

88

Label the heart tissue 

A - Endocardium 

B - Purkinje fibres

C - Myocardiam (cardiac muscle tissue)

89

Label

A - Muscle 

B - Axon 

C - Cell body of neurones