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Who may act as a malfunction officer during USAF parachute operations?

A qualified rigger, the Drop Zone Controller (DZC), or an experienced parachutist who is qualified for the
airdrop operation being conducted. (AFI 11-410, 5.4)


Who may jump cameras during military free fall?

Only members on active parachute status qualified IAW Section 6A and certified based on MMC requirements are authorized to conduct free fall camera operations.

These parachutists meet the following mandatory requirements:

Graduate of a MMC-approved free fall camera course or program of instruction according to
paragraph 6.8.

Certification and training are documented IAW the OJT program. Prerequisites and currency are established through MMC directives. (AFI 11-410, 6.10)


When is a jumper considered non-current?

Any free fall parachutist who has not performed a free fall jump within the previous 180 days is considered non-current and must complete free fall refresher training IAW AFMAN 11-411(I)/FM 3-05.211. (AFI 11-410, 7.1.2)


When is a jumpmaster considered non-current?

Free Fall Jumpmaster Currency. Any free fall JM who has not performed primary or assistant JM duties within the previous 180 days, where at least one parachutist actually exited the aircraft, is considered non-current and must complete free fall JM refresher training IAW AFMAN 11-411(I)/FM 3-05.211. (AFI 11-410, 7.1.4)


What is sustained airborne training (SAT) and when must it be conducted?

At a minimum, sustained airborne training will consist of the JM briefing, aircraft specific procedures, post egress procedures, emergency procedures, canopy entanglement procedures, and landing procedures. Sustained airborne training is applicable to all parachutists qualified IAW Section 6A and must be conducted within 24 hours prior to any USAF parachute
operation. (AFI 11-410, 7.2.1)


When is free fall emergency procedure training required?

Free fall emergency procedures training applies to
all free fall parachutists qualified IAW Section 6A. Free fall emergency procedures training is an annual requirement that consists of classroom training and a practical suspended harness or wind tunnel exercise including several parachute/post-opening malfunction procedures wearing a jump helmet, goggles, gloves, and oxygen mask, if available. The hanging harness or wind tunnel exercise must be administered by a qualified free fall jumpmaster. Document training in the OJT record, the JRF, or in the appropriate MMC system.
(AFI 11-410, 7.2.2)


Who is exempt from wet silk training?

military divers (AFI 11-410, 7.2.3)


How long are MFF parachute packing waivers good for?

Recurring packing training must be conducted annually by a qualified rigger and documented in the member’s OJT records using AF Form 1098 or via other organizational systems as appropriate. When operating under an approved packing waiver, parachutists are not authorized to jump main canopies packed by other parachutists. A packing waiver given under paragraph 7.6. is valid for no more than 365 days. (AFI 11-410, 7.6)


What are the advanced parachute packing (APS) requirements?

While qualified riggers are the only personnel
authorized to inspect, maintain, and repair main and reserve canopies and to pack reserve canopies, a
packing waiver is not required for parachutists to pack the main canopies of advanced parachute systems
(APS) that they will jump personally. Instead, members must receive APS main canopy packing training
from a qualified rigger who has been trained on the particular system to be packed. Recurring packing training must be conducted annually by a qualified rigger and documented in the member’s OJT records using AF Form 1098 or via other organizational systems as appropriate. Parachutists are not authorized to jump main canopies packed by other parachutists.


What are the APS qualification standards?

USAF parachutists will only jump parachute systems and equipment for which they have received system specific training. System specific training is conducted prior to the first jump and includes, but is not limited to: canopy flight characteristics, harness/container configuration, and satisfactory completion of emergency procedures, including hanging harness if available. Only JMs who have received training and jumped the intended system are authorized to conduct system specific training for other parachutists. USAF personnel will not use privately owned or leased parachute equipment during military parachute operations. Government owned parachute equipment will not be used for personal and/or off-duty activities. (AFI 11-410,


Who may use an APS?

Use of APS is limited to those parachutists with 50 or more jumps. Members employing APS will not exceed a 1:1 canopy loading ratio, where the first figure is the suspended weight and the second is the canopy square footage. The AF approved for use list is the authorizing document for APS employment. Parachutists must complete system specific training per
paragraph, and unit commanders will designate by letter members authorized to utilize APS. (AFI 11-410, 8.1.4)


What is the minimum overland military free fall exit and pull altitudes?

Exit: 5,000' AGL
Pull: 3,500' AGL


What is the minimum overwater military free fall pull and exit altitudes?

Exit: 3,000' AGL
Pull: 2,500' AGL
(AFI 11-410,


Are altimeters required for intentional water jumps?

No. If waterproof altimeters are available, they will be used for overwater free fall operations. At a minimum, water jumps will have one operational altimeter in the aircraft for parachutist use. (AFI 11-410, 9.5.2)


What is required on altimeters for night jumps?

During night operations, altimeters will have either an integrated light or be configured with an additional
light source adequate to illuminate the face of the altimeter. (AFI 11-410, 9.5.2)


What are the restrictions for contact flying and canopy relative work?

Contact flying is defined as pre-meditated contact between jumpers during free fall. Personnel conducting contact flying will document progression in OJT records. Canopy Relative Work. USAF parachutists will not engage in canopy relative work while on duty except for specifically authorized Air Force Parachute Team operations. (AFI 11-410, 9.5.7/8)


How many JMs are required for parachutist operations?

Each aircraft dropping parachutists will have a minimum of one JM, although two are preferable. (AFI 11-410, 9.6)


Other than the JM, who else may perform JMPI's on the primary JM?

When only one JM is available, specifically trained and certified personnel may conduct a JM personnel inspection (JMPI) on the primary JM. These personnel will be selected based on experience and recommendation from an OJT certifier and will receive JMPI training for systems which they will inspect. JMPI training will be conducted IAW the references in paragraph 9.6. and the plans or courses of instruction in paragraphs 6.4.1., and 6.7.1. Document JMPI training in the member’s training records and via AF Form 797 for military personnel. (AFI 11-410, 9.9.3)


What medical coverage is required on drop zones for jump operations?

Medical coverage is required for all non-contingency personnel parachute operations. In the event of a medical emergency, medical personnel and equipment will be capable of immediate and appropriate intervention. Medical coverage should be co-located with the drop zone controller. In certain cases, emergency response capability elsewhere on the drop zone or at the edge of the drop zone will suffice provided adequate communications exist between medical personnel and the drop zone controller. Medical coverage for USAF personnel parachuting operations consists of a minimum of one appropriately equipped and current Emergency Medical Technician qualified at the basic level or higher. 10.3.2. The requirement for medical personnel is satisfied when two or more parachutists who meet the requirements in paragraph 10.3. exit the aircraft as part of the first group on the first pass. In this case a transportation mechanism is still required, and the medical equipment in paragraph 10.3.1. should be collocated with the drop zone controller, the transportation mechanism, or otherwise immediately available.(AFI 11-410, 10.3)


What personnel are require din each boat for intentional water jumps?

Support for intentional water operations will include a boat operator and a qualified safety swimmer for every boat.


How many boats are required for intentional water jumps?

During USAF intentional water operations, one power driven recovery boat is required for every three parachutists on a single pass IAW AFMAN11-420(I)/FM 3-21. When all parachutists will be military divers, the minimum number of power driven recovery boats is one for every six parachutists on a single pass. (AFI 11-410, 10.4.3)


What are the requirements for parachute demonstrations?

Commanders will carefully select parachutists to participate in parachute demonstrations based upon experience, maturity, and demonstrated capability. For demonstrations that call for free fall employment, parachutists must have a minimum of 100 ram air canopy jumps. Commanders will identify and certify members for participation in aerial events on AF Form
797, Job Qualification Standard Continuation/Command JQS. Parachutists who jump flags, streamers, banners, smoke, or other public relations devices will be functionally certified for the task by their MMC. Such devices must not interfere with the safe deployment and operation of any parachute system. The use of APS for parachute demonstrations is limited to the AFPT. (AFI 11-410, 11.6)


What is considered a night jump?

any parachute jump performed between end of evening nautical twilight and beginning of morning nautical twilight. (AFI 11-410, A2.3.2.4)


RA-1 specifications

Canopy Area: 360 square feet
Complete Assembly Weight: 49 pounds
Main Canopy Top Surface: Zero-porosity nylon ripstop
Main Canopy Bottom Surface: 0–3 CFM nylon ripstop

Line Strength and Type Spectra: 1,000-pound
Lift-to-Drag Ratio: Full-Glide 4:1
Stall: Resistant to stall

Forward Speed:
(300 Pounds) 50 feet per second (34 miles per hour)
(200 Pounds) 38 feet per second (26 miles per hour)

Exit Weight:
Maximum 450 pounds
Minimum 160 pounds
(TC 18-11, Table 1-1)


What are the minimum and maximum exit altitudes for the RA-1?

Maximum Exit Altitude:
DBSL 25,000 feet above MSL
MFF 35,000 feet above MSL

Minimum Exit Altitude:
DBSL 3,500 feet AGL
MFF 5,500 feet AGL

Rotary-Wing (Side Door): (MFF and DBSL) 5,500 feet AGL
(TC 18-11, Table 1-1)


What are the minimum and maximum opening altitudes with the RA-1?

Minimum Opening Altitude:
DBSL 3,500 feet AGL
MFF 4,500 feet AGL

Maximum Opening Altitude:
All Configurations 25,000 feet above MSL
(TC 18-11, Table 1-1)


Is the CYPRES water resistant?

The CYPRES is water-resistant for 15 minutes at a depth of 15 feet. (TC 18-11, 5-2)


When does the CYPRES activate?

Once properly powered ON, the Military CYPRES 2 in default (training) mode arms itself 1,500 feet
above the default activation altitude (750 feet above activation altitude for the Expert CYPRES 2).

Once properly powered ON, the Military CYPRES 2 in absolute (operational) mode arms itself
immediately. (TC 18-11, Ch. 5)


What is the activation speed of the military CYPRES?

35 meters per second (78 miles per hour or 115 feet per second). (TC 18-11, 5-8)


When does the military CYPRES go into standby mode?

The Military CYPRES 2 will go into an energy saving (standby) mode at 130 feet because this gives it an altitude buffer to make sure it goes into this mode. Without this buffer, the Military CYPRES 2 could possibly stay in the activation phase of the jump, which consumes the most battery power. This would greatly depreciate the battery life over time. Also, the Military
CYPRES 2 would not save the jumper if it fired at 130 feet. (TC 18-11, 5-8)


WHat are the Military CYPRES 2 models?

The three Military CYPRES 2 models—1000 35 A, 1500 35 A, and 2500 29 A—are the models in present use for all tactical parachute systems.

1000 35 A is used on the Military Tandem Tethered Bundle parachute and authorized nonstandard parachute systems.

1500 35 A is used with the RA-1, MC-4, MJN-1, MJA-2,

2500 29 A is used on the Sigma Vector–Military-Tandem Vector System (MTV-3) and the Tandem Offset Resupply Delivery System. (TC1 8-11, 5-10/11)


What is the minimum reserve activation altitude and main deployment altitude?

2,000 feet for the 1500 model
2,500 feet for the 2500 model
1,500 feet for the 1000 model
(TC 18-11, 5-40)


What is considered a highest release point obstacle (HRPO)?

A terrain feature at the release point is an obstacle when that feature is 200 feet or higher than the drop zone and is within—

 A 500-meter radius of the release point for operations 13,000 feet AGL and below.
 A 1,000-meter radius of the release point for operations above 13,000 feet AGL.
(TC 18-11, 5-40)


What is offset mode on the EXPERT CYPRES 2?

The Expert CYPRES 2 does not have an absolute (operational) mode. However, the Expert CYPRES 2
can be set with an offset that will allow for a ±3,000-foot difference between the departure airfield and the
drop zone. This setting is derived by the jumpmaster using the same method employed to set the jumper’s
altimeter (altitude difference between the departure airfield MSL and drop zone MSL equals offset). Rounded to the nearest 30-foot increment, the offset is entered into the Expert CYPRES 2. Once powered ON in offset mode, the virtual drop zone (zero reference point) automatically becomes the departure airfield plus the amount of offset. For example, if all conditions are met, the Expert CYPRES 2 that is powered ON at the departure airfield with a default activation altitude of 750 feet and a +300-foot offset will fire the release element at 1,050 feet above the departure airfield elevation. If all conditions are not met to fire the release element, the Expert CYPRES 2 will remain active until it reaches 130 feet above the virtual drop zone elevation, at which time it will deactivate automatically. Once set in the offset mode, the Expert CYPRES 2 must be powered OFF and powered back ON just prior to every lift at the departure airfield; this is a required safety measure for military use. In the offset mode, an arrow up means the offset is higher than the
default altitude of 750 feet; an arrow down means the offset is lower than the default altitude of 750 feet. (TC 18-11, 5-35)


How do you calculate for an unknown altimeter setting in operational mode?

The jumpmaster will calculate the millibar setting by using and obtaining the following information:

 Unknown aircraft altimeter setting (QNH) = 29.92 inches of mercury.
 Drop zone or virtual drop zone elevation MSL + 500 feet for safety factor = virtual drop zone elevation MSL

When using unknown setting of 29.92 inches of mercury, the jumpmaster must also add 1,000 feet to the jumpers’ pull altitude as a safety factor in case the Military CYPRES 2 fires on the high side. (TC 18-11, 5-50)


What are some of the jumpmaster and pilot considerations for setting the CYPRES in operational mode?

During an in-flight power ON for an
unpressurized cabin, the aircraft climb rate or descent rate must not exceed 1,000 feet per minute
or a steady pressurized rate within 1,000 feet per minute for a pressurized cabin until all Military
CYPRES 2 models are powered ON. Leveling off is preferred.

The jumpmaster must brief the pilots not to exceed 5,000 feet per minute as this descent rate is easy
to remember and covers all three Military CYPRES 2 models. Descent to an altitude below the elevation of the departure airfield will not affect the Military CYPRES 2 in the absolute (operational) mode. (TC 18-11, 5-51)


What is not allowed while on life support equipment (supplemental oxygen)?

No substance may be in the mouth of any jumper while on life support equipment (oxygen) at any time, to include smokeless tobacco (dip), chewing gum, or food. Additionally, tinted googles are prohibited. (TC 18-11, 6-19)


What is the only type of oxygen allowed to be used for MFF operations?

aviator's breathing oxygen. (TC 18-11, 6-34)


What are the oxygen requirments for HALO/HAHO operations?

All personnel will prebreathe 100-percent oxygen at or below 16,000 feet MSL pressure or cabin altitude below 16,000 feet MSL pressure on any mission scheduled for a drop at or above 20,000 feet MSL on all MFF/DBSL operations where oxygen is required.

The required prebreathing time will be completed before the 20-minute warning and before the
cabin altitude ascends through 16,000 feet MSL.

Any break in prebreathing requires restarting the prebreathing period or removing the individuals whose prebreathing was interrupted from the mission.

Prebreathing requires the presence of sufficient U.S. Air Force physiological technician support onboard the aircraft.

All personnel onboard during unpressurized operations above 10,000 feet MSL will use oxygen. (Exception: Parachutists may operate without supplemental oxygen during unpressurized flights up to 13,000 feet MSL provided the time above 10,000 feet MSL does not exceed 30 minutes each sortie.) (TC 18-11, 6-38)


What are the approved water flotation devices for MFF operations?

Parachutists must wear military-approved flotation devices (Tactical Flotation Support System [TFSS]-5326, Life Preserver Unit-10/P, or underwater demolition team life vest. (TC 18-11, 6-134)


When must parachutist wear approved flotation devices while conducting MFF operations?

whenever the planned flight path is over open bodies of water large enough to be unavoidable with a maneuverable chute for one third or more of the distance under canopy. They also wear them when an open body of water is within 1,000 meters of the planned impact point. (TC 18-11, 6-134)


What is the minimum separation required between jumpers under canopy?

25 meters horizontal and vertical separation. (TC 18-11, F-44)


What is the minimum separation for grouping procedures in freefall?

25 meters. (TC 18-11, F-70)


What is the required minimum freefall delay for MFF operations?

Below 20,000: 4 seconds
Above 20,000: Pull altitude will be predetermined; pull altitude will be no less than 1,500 feet below drop
altitude rather than a set time delay. (TC 18-11, Table H-1)


What is a HALO jump?

High-altitude low-opening (HALO) operations are jumps made with an exit altitude of up to 35,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) and a parachute deployment altitude at or below 6,000 feet above ground level (AGL). ATTP 3-18.11, 1-2)


What is a HAHO jump?

High-altitude high-opening (HAHO) operations are standoff infiltration jumps made with an exit altitude of up to 35,000 feet MSL and a parachute deployment altitude at or above 6,000 feet AGL to 25,000 feet AGL. (ATTP 3-18.11, 1-2)


Are googles mandatory for MFF operations?

MFF parachutists must use eye protection. When oxygen is used, all goggles, no matter what type, will be clear. All goggles shall be made of shatterproof materials. (ATTP 3-18.11, 2-9)


What is required on the HPT lowering line for MFF operations?

Remove the yellow release lanyard or tape it with one complete wrap of masking tape. Place a doubled heavyweight retainer band around the center of the folded lowering line and a tripled heavyweight retainer band around the quick-ejector snap. (ATTP 3-18.11, 5-6)


How many lights must be worn for night MFF operations?

A minimum of three chemlights must be worn—one on the altimeter and two additional lights (placed IAW unit SOP). (ATTP 3-18.11, D-95)


What are the wind restrictions for MFF operations?

Land: 18 knots
Water: 25 knots
(AFI 13-217)