Micro of Vagina/Penis Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro of Vagina/Penis Deck (14):
1

Vagina microbiome

normally anaerobic --> O2 [ ] increase with tampon use, sex, and damage
- Lactobacilli are dominant microorganisms (gram + bacilli, facultative anaerobes
- they produce lactic acid (decrease pH), hydrogen peroxide (hydroxyl radicals), and bacteriocins (lethal to other bacteria)

2

Estrogen effects on microbiome

Estrogen promotes the menstrual cycle which results in sloughing of epithelial cells --> cells have glycogen which is converted to glucose --> utilized to make lactate from pyruvate --> production of H+ decreases the pH and lactate is used for energy by immune cells

3

Pre-pubertal and postmenopausal women microbiome

is different from reproductive women because they lack estrogen, so they have less robust immune activity

4

Monocarboxylate Transporters

MCTs --> symport lactate and H+
- take up lactate --> increase extracellular pH

5

Lactobacillus

gram (+) bacilli --> facultative anaerobe
- can make both L-lactate and D-lactate
- L-lactate is taken up by immune cells through MCTs to make ATP
- D-lactate is not
- Lactate racemase = interconverts 2 forms
- Pyruvate oxidase/glucose oxidase = makes hydrogen peroxide
- Bacteriocins = makes pore in target cell membrane --> depolarization and outflow of cytoplasmic contents

6

Lactobacillus

gram (+) bacilli --> facultative anaerobe
- can make both L-lactate and D-lactate
- L-lactate is taken up by immune cells through MCTs to make ATP
- D-lactate is not
- Lactate racemase = interconverts 2 forms
- Pyruvate oxidase/glucose oxidase = makes hydrogen peroxide
- Bacteriocins = makes pore in target cell membrane --> depolarization and outflow of cytoplasmic contents

7

Bacterial Vaginosis

not caused by single pathogen --> disruption of normal vaginal flora (decrease in lactobacilli, increase in other anaerobes)
- Gardnerella is most abundant in BV
- can progress to ascending infection
- tx = metronidazole

8

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

infection/inflammation of upper genital tract
- ab pain, discharge
- clue cells, hyphae, trichomoniasis (not really a single agent every identified)
Tx = ceftriaxone (Gonorrhea), doxycycline (chlamydia)

9

Toxic Shock Syndrome

fever, diffuse rash, hypotension, organ dysfunction
Staph aureus (tampon use) - gram (+) cocci --> clusters of grapes --> catalase (+) -> coagulase (+)
SUPERANTIGEN - bind both TCR and MHC II --> create immunological synapse without specificity --> activation of all T cells regardless of specificity --> immune response against everything

10

TSST-1

toxin from staph aureus responsible for toxic shock syndrome
- occurs because of pathogenicity island (SaPI1) --> encoded by non-essential gene so it is present in some staph but not others
- spread but phage transduction --> benign community can become pathologic very quickly

11

Penis microbiome

similar to vaginal --> dominated by lactobacilli
- infection with STI depletes lactobacilli
- most common is neisseria

12

Circumcision effect on microbiome

documented effect on HIV transmission
- also reduces incidence of bacterial vaginosis in partners
- it alters microbial community and increases protection
- the foreskin is not keratinized and is a common site of entry
- other penile skin is keratinized and is protective
- circumcision associated with reduced inflammation and reduced # of macrophages in urethra

13

Epididymitis

usually bacterial infection -> pain, swelling, fever, dysuria
Young boys = E. Coli
Sexually Active = chlamydia, gonorrhea
>35 years = E. Coli and Pseudomonas

14

Prostatitis

not known if prostate has its own microbiome
bacterial prostatitis = infection of prostate
- UTI or STI organisms