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Flashcards in STDs Deck (21):


relatively few clinical syndromes
1. urethritis
2. cervicitis
3. vaginitis or vaginosis
4. genital ulcers


Inflammatory/Exudate Causes of STDs

Urethritis -> N. Gonorrhea, C. trachomatis
Cervicitis -> C. trachomatis
Vaginitis -> T. vaginalis, C. albicans
Vaginosis -> Gardnerella


Nonexudative Causes of STDs (Genital Ulcers)

Syphilis -> T. pallidum (not painful)
Herpes -> HSV-2 (painful)
Chancroid -> H. ducreyi
LGV -> C. trachomatis
Genital Warts -> HPV (not painful)


Systemic Infections

AIDS -> HIV 1 and 2
PID -> N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, anaerobes


Cancer from STDs

Cervical carcinoma - HPV
Kaposi sarcoma - HHV-8



dsDNA -> circular -> icosahedral -> nonenveloped -> papoviridae
- transmitted by direct contact (wart like growths)
- has oncogenes (16, 18)
- vaccine available, no treatment (incurable)
- dependent on host cell replication -> if cell it infects is not replicating, virus cannot infect


Neisseria Gonorrhea

gram (-) -> diplococci -> glucose oxidizer
Grows on Thayer-Martin media
- specialized pili with antigenic variation, endotoxin, no capsule, IgA protease
- kills ciliated cells
- treat with ceftriaxone, also pair with doxycycline for chlamydia co-infection
- prophylactic erythromycin eye drops for neonates


N. Gonorrhea 3 types of infections

1. Local infection -> genital tract or anorectal infection
2. Systemic arthritis -> invasive pathogen, most common cause of systemic arthritis in sexually active individuals
3. Untreated --> PID, ectopic pregnancy, sterility, Fitz-Hugh-Cutris Syndrome


Herpes Simplex Virus 2

dsDNA -> linear -> icosahedral -> enveloped -> alpha herpes virus
- transmitted via direct contact, latency in neurons
- encodes for several proteins required to promote replication (DNA polymerase and thymidine kinase)
- treatment only effective during lytic infection
- visualized on Tzanck smear --> multinucleated giant cells


Treatment of Herpes

ACYCLOVIR --> a prodrug that is a guanine base with a modified sugar -> requires viral thymidine kinase to activate -> gets incorporated into viral DNA --> chain terminator
- has 100x more affinity for viral than human



used for beta-herpes infections
- doesn't use thymidine kinase -> uses different enzyme


Trichomonas Vaginalis

small, pear-shaped protozoa --> 4 anterior flagella and 1 undulating membrane = 5 flagella
- white or yellow-green frothy discharge, foul-smelling, fishy odor
- transmitted via direct contact, treat both patient and partner with metronidazole
- vaginal pH will be elevated
- not an opportunistic infection


Candida albicans

*opportunistic infection* --> due to disruption of normal bacterial microbiota
- itchiness, white, clumpy discharge (common cause of vaginitis)
- pseudohyphae indicate rapidly growing
- tx with topical/oral azoles --> tx both patient and partner


HIV 1 and 2

RNA virus -> icosahedreal -> enveloped -> ss(+) diploid -> retroviridae
- infects CD4+ Tcells with CXCR4 or CCR5
- gp120 -CXCR4/CCR5, gp41 - entry into cell
- gag = virion core
- pol = RT, integrase, protease
- env = glycoproteins


Trepnema pallidum ---> SYPHILIS

spirochete -> microaerophilic
- painless ulcers that go away --> come back as full body rash
- rapid plasma regain test
- 3 stages of disease
1. Primary - appearance of hard chancre at site of entry, loaded with spirochetes
2. Secondary - weeks/months after -> fever, headache, sore throat, lymphadenopathy, red/brown rash on soles and palms
3. Tertiary - enter highly varied latent period (years) -> can cause cardiovascular effects (aortic rupture) -> uncommon today because penicillin G effective against all stages of syphilis


Argyll Robertson Pupil

condition from syphilis that accomodates to near objects but does not react to light


Congenital Syphilis

bacterium can pass through placenta (ToRCHeS)
- most common in 2nd or 3rd trimester
- deafness, mulberry molars, saber shins, saddle nose, Hutchinson's incisors



fluorescent treponemal antibody absorbance test -> test serum reacts with treponemal cells and then reacted with antihuman globulin antibody labeled with fluorescent dyes -> if antibodies present -> show up labeled


Gardnerella vaginalis

no itching
white-gray color
moderate discharge that is malodorous


Chlamydia trachomatis

- has both elementary body (EB) and reticulate body (RB)
- multiplies by binary fusion
Serovars D-K = urethritis, PID, neonatal pneumo, conjuctivitis
A-C = trachoma (chronic conjuctivitis)
L = lymphogranuloma venereum


Pathophysiology of C. trachomatis

D-K = infects columnar epithelium and generates epithelium
- can spread to fallopian tubes = ectopic pregs --> can infect liver (Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome)
- males can spread to joints -> Reiter's syndrome
A-C = hand-eye contact and conjuctivitis -> blindness
L - rare but leads to painless ulcers and leads to proctitis and rectal stricture
- treat with azithromycin and tetracyclines