Placenta and Breast histology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Placenta and Breast histology Deck (29):
1

Endometrial Invasion

secretory phase of endometrium is required
- trophoblast proliferation -> lacunar formation
- decidual reaction
Cytotrophoblasts divide and form into synctiotrophoblasts
- synctiotrophoblasts are not mitotically active

2

Chorionic Villi

Contain:
1. extraembryonic mesoderm
2. Cytotrophoblasts
3. Syncytiotrophoblasts

3

Primary Villi

trophoblasts only, no mesoderm yet

4

Secondary Villi

mesodermal outgrowths and villus core

5

Tertiary Villi

differentiation of blood vessels in villus core
- eventual anastamoses of villar blood vessels with fetal circulation

6

Decidua basalis

between conceptus and myometrium
- constitues maternal portion of placenta
- site of decidual reaction and most extensive villar invasion
- lots of glycogen

7

Decidua capsularis

between conceptus and uterine lumen

8

Decidua parietalis

remainder of endometrium

9

Cotyledons

placenta divided into 15-30 lobules by septae
- contain 2-4 tertiary villi with their branches

10

Fetal Circulation

umbilical arteries --> chorionic arteries --> villar capillaries --> chorionic veins --> umbilical vein

11

Maternal Circulation

spiral arteries --> intervillous space (lacunar network) --> endometrial veins

12

Hofbauer Cells

placental macrophages

13

Placental Barrier 1st trimester

Syncytiotrophoblasts
Cytotrophoblasts
Basal lamina of trophoblasts
Fetal CT
Basal lamina of fetal capillaries
Fetal endothelium

14

Placental barrier after 1st trimester

Thinner barrier
Synctiotrophoblasts
Basal lamina
Fetal Capillaires

15

Placental Hormones

most are syncytiotrophoblast origin
- hCG -> maintenance of corpus luteum
- human placental lactogen -> closely related to GH, stimulates growth, lactogenic
- progesterone and estrogen
- prolaction, PGs, relaxin (softens cervix and pelvic ligaments

16

Basic organization of mammary gland

specialized cutaneous gland -> modified sweat gland
- each lobe is an independent gland separated by dense interlobar CT
- ducts open at apex of nipple
- intralobular CT is loose and delicate

17

Order of ducts

Intralobular duct --> interlobular duct --> lactiferous duct --> lactiferous sinus --> lactiferous duct

18

Lactiferous sinus

dilation of lactiferous duct just before it opens into summit of nipple

19

Epithelium of ducts

simple cuboidal in ducts
- stratified squamous near opening of nipple

20

Changes at puberty

glands enlarge rapidly -> due to development of adipose and CT
remain incompletely developed until pregnancy

21

Areola and Nipple

skin is pigmented (no sweat or hair follicles)
- stratified squamous keritanizing -> melanin increases during pregnancy
- lots of Meissner's corpuscles
Smooth muscle is longitudinally and circumferentially arranged

22

Secretory unit

alveoli - cuboidal to squamous epithelium
- distal ends of intralobular ducts
- proteins and salts = merocrine secretion
- milk/fat = apocrine secretion

23

Myoepithelial cells

make alveoli look stratified, assist in contraction and excretion of milk

24

Inactive gland

alveoli have flattened cuboidal
extensive CT and adipose

25

Pregnancy

intralobular ducts proliferate and branch
- increase in alveolar # and epithelium height
- colostrum production (rich in protein, low lipid, IgA)
- decrease in CT

26

Lactation

alveoli - active (dilated, cuboidal, milk rich in lactose, protein, lipids, and IgA)

27

Regression

absorption of secretory products
alveolar size decreases and degenerates
increase CT and adipose

28

Involution

postmenopausal
atrophy of gland parenchyma and stroma
few ducts
cyst formation
CT becomes dense

29

Puberty --> Pregnancy

estradiol stimulates duct proliferation
Progesterone stimulates alveolar proliferation
prolactin = dropping levels of progesterone and estrogen after birth --> prolactin is enhanced