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Microbiology First Aid USMLE Step 1 > Micro Pharm > Flashcards

Flashcards in Micro Pharm Deck (209):
1

Binds PBPs, inhibit transpeptidation, activate autolytic enzymes

Penicillins (G and V) mechanism of action?

2

Gram positive bacteria

Penicillins (general) uses?

3

Hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in renal impairment

Penicillins (general) side effects?

4

Beta lactamase sensitive. Narrow spectrum (g+), Treponema pallidum.

Penicillin V uses?

5

Hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in renal impairment. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (fervers, chills, rigor hypotension) with syphillis treatment.

Penicillin V side effects?

6

Bactericidal. Binds PBPs, inhibit transpeptidation, activate autolytic enzymes.

Methicillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin, Ticarcillin, Pipercillin, Azlocillin, Carbenicillin

7

Beta lactamase RESISTANT. Very narrow spectrum, methicillin SENSITIVE S. aureus (MSSA).

Methicillin, Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin uses?

8

Hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in renal impairment. Interstitial nephritis.

Methicillin, Amoxicillin

9

Hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in LIVER impairment.

Nafcillin, Dicloxacillin side effects?

10

Hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in LIVER impairment.

Dicloxacillin side effects?

11

Beta lactamase sensitive. Broad spectrum, Haemophilus, E.coli, Listeria, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella

Amoxicillin, Ampicillin uses?

12

Hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in renal impairment. Rash with viral infection, pseudomembranous colitis

Ampicillin side effects?

13

Beta lactamase sensitive. Extended spectrum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram negative anaerobes (Bacteriodes fragilis).

Ticarcillin, Piperacillin, Azlocillin, Carbenicillin

14

Hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in renal impairment.

Ticarcillin, Piperacillin, Azlocillin, Carbenicillin side effects?

15

Inhibits beta-lactamase/penicillinase

Clavulanic acid, Tazobactam, Sulbactam mechanism of action?

16

Combine with ampicillin/amoxicillin or antipseudomonals to protect the antibiotic from destruction by Beta-lactamase (penicillinase)

Clavulanic acid, Tazobactam, Sulbactam uses?

17

Beta-lactam drugs that inhibit cell wall synthesis but are less susceptible to penicillinases. Bactericidal.

Cephalosporins (general)

18

- Hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in renal impairment, vitamin K deficiency.
- Low reactivity with penicillins and increased nephrotoxicity of amino glycosides.

Cephalosporins (general) side effects?

19

Used for: Gram Positive Cocci, PEcK (Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae.)
- One of these was used prior to surgery to precent S. Aureus wound infections.

1st Gen: Cefazolin, cephalexin
- Cefazolin

20

Used for: Gram positive Cocci HEN PEcKS (Haemophilus influenzae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria spp., Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marascens.)
- Greater Spectrum of Gram pos

2nd Gen: Cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime

21

Used for: Serious Gram negative infections resistant to other Beta-lactams. Sepsis and meningitis (crosses BBB.)

3rd gen: Ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime

22

Used for: increased activity against Pseudomonas and gram positive organisms.

4th gen: Cefepime

23

2nd gen: HEN PEcKS (Haemophilus influenzae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Neisseria spp., Proteus mirabilis, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marascens.)

Cefamandole, cefotetan uses?

24

Disulfiram like effects, hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in renal impairment.

Cefamandole, cefotetan side effects?

25

3rd gen that doesn't cross BBB (too lipid soluble)

Cefoperazone uses?

26

Disulfiram like effects, hypersensitivity, dose adjustment in LIVER impairment.

Cefoperazone

27

A Monobactam resistant to Beta-lactamases that prevents peptidoglycan cross-linking by binding to PBP3.
- Synergistic with aminoglycosides and no cross allergenicity with penicillins.

Aztreonam mechanism of action?

28

Used For: Gram negative rods only: Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Serratia.
- For penicillin-allergic pts and those with renal insufficiency who cannot tolerate amino glycosides.
- Usually nontoxic, occasional GI upset.

Aztreonam

29

Broad-spectrum, Beta-lactamase-resistant carbapenem. Always used with cilastatin (inhibitor of renal dehydropeptidase I) to decrease inactivation of drug in renal tubules..

Imipenem

30

MUST BE USED WITH CILASTATIN. Broad spectrum G+ cocci and G- rods and anaerobes. Wide spectrum but limited use due to life-threatening infections.

Imipenem uses?

31

SE: GI distress, skin rash, and SEIZURES. Dose reduction in renal failure.

Imipenem side effects?

32

Broad-spectrum, Beta-lactamase-resistant carbapenem other than Imipenem.

Meropenem mechanism of action?

33

Used for: Doesn't need cilastatin. Broad spectrum G+ cocci and G- rods.

Meropenem uses?

34

SE: GI distress, skin rash, and less risk of seizures versus imipinem. Dose reduction in renal failure.

Meropenem side effects?

35

Inhibits renal dihydropeptidase I (used with Imipenem.)

Cilastatin mechanism of action?

36

Required for imipenem use.

Cilastatin uses?

37

Bactericidal. Inhibits cell wall peptidoglycan formation by binding D-ala D-ala portion of cell wall precursors (transglycosylation.)

Vancomycin mechanism of action?

38

Used for: Serious G+ infections. MRSA, Enterococcus, and Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous colitis).

Vancomycin uses?

39

SE: Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity, Thrombophlebitis, diffuse flushing- "red man syndrome" (can largely prevent by pretreatment with antihistamines and slow infusion rate).

Vancomycin

40

Bactericidal. Inhibit formation of initiation complex and cause misreading of mRNA (30s subunit.) Requires O2 for uptake therefore ineffective against anaerobes.

Amikacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, neomycin
- A "initiates" the Alphabet.

41

Severe gram-negative rod infections. Synergistic with beta-lactam antibiotics. NOT ANAEROBES.
- Which one for bowel surgery and which one for M. tuberculosis?

Amikacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, neomycin uses?
- Neomycin for bowel surgery and Streptomycin for M. tuberculosis.

42

Nephrotoxicity (especially when used with cephalosporins), ototoxicity (especially when used with loop diuretics), teratogenic, neuromuscular blockade (like botulism.)
- Which one for Contact dermatitis?

Amikacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, tobramycin, neomycin
- Neomycin

43

Bacteriostatic. Inhibits attachment of aminoacyl tRNA to acceptor site (30S). Limited CNS penetration.
- Which one for renal failure because it is fecally eliminated?

Tetracycline, doxycycline, demeclocycline, minocycline mechanism of action?
- Doxycyline

44

Vibrio cholerae, Acne, Chlamydia*, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Tularemia, H. pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi*, Rickettsia*.
- Effective because of it's ability to accumulate intracellularly.

Tetracycline, doxycycline, demeclocycline, minocycline uses?

45

GI distress, discoloration of teeth and inhibition of bone growth in children, photosensitivity. Contraindicated in children, pregnancy, and ingestion with milk (chelates calcium.) Fanconi's syndrome (expired tetracyclines).

Tetracycline, doxycycline, demeclocycline, minocycline side effects?

46

Bacteriostatic. Inhibits 50S peptidyltransferase activity.

Chloramphenicol mechanism of action?

47

Meningitis (Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae).

Chloramphenicol uses?

48

Anemia (dose dependent), aplastic anemia (dose independent), gray baby syndrome (in premature infants because they lack liver UDP-glucuronyl transferase). Inhibits CYP-450s.

Chloramphenicol side effects?

49

Bacteriostatic. Inhibit protein synthesis by blocking translocation (transpeptidation) at 50S subunit.

Clindamycin mechanism of action?

50

Anaerobic infections (e.g., Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens). S. aureus osteomyelitis (enters bone.)
- Treat anaerobes above the diaphragm vs metronidazole (anaerobic infections below the diaphragm).

Clindamycin uses?

51

Pseudomembranous colitis (C. difficile overgrowth), fever, diarrhea.

Clindamycin side effects?

52

Bacteriostatic. Inhibit protein synthesis by blocking translocation via 50S subunit.

Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin mechanism of action?

53

URIs, pneumonias, STDs, gram-positive cocci (streptococcal infections in patients allergic to penicillin), Mycoplasma, Legionella, Chlamydia, Neisseria.
- Which one for M. avium-intracellulare?

Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin uses?
- Azithromycin

54

Prolonged QT interval (especially erythromycin), GI discomfort (stimulates motilin receptors), acute cholestatic hepatitis, eosinophilia, skin rashes, deafness. Increases serum concentration of theophyllines, oral anticoagulants by inhibiting CYP-450s (exception: azithromycin.)

Erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin side effects?

55

KETOLIDE. Bacteriostatic. Inhibit protein synthesis by blocking translocation via 50S subunit.

Telithromycin mechanism of action?

56

Macrolide-resistant S. pneumonia.

Telithromycin uses?

57

Bacteriostatic. Inhibits attachment of aminoacyl tRNA to acceptor site (50S) and block extrusion of completed peptide from ribosome.

Dalfopristin/quinupristin mechanism of action?

58

VREF/VRSA

Dalfopristin/quinupristin uses?

59

Bacteriostatic. Inhibits formation of initiation complex via 50S ribosomal subunit.

Linezolid mechanism of action?

60

VREF/VRSA

Linezolid uses?

61

Myelosuppression.

Linezolid side effects?

62

PABA antimetabolites inhibit dihydropteroate synthetase. Bacteriostatic.

Sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine mechanism of action?

63

Gram-positive, gram-negative, Nocardia, Chlamydia, Pneumocystis, Toxoplasma (sulfadiazine). Triple sulfas or SMX for simple UTI.

Sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine uses?

64

Photosensitivity, hypersensitivity reactions, hemolysis if G6PD deficient, nephrotoxicity (crystaluria), photosensitivity, kernicterus in infants, displace other drugs from albumin (e.g., warfarin).

Sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine side effects?

65

Inhibits bacterial dihydrofolate reductase. Bacteriostatic.

Trimethoprim, pyrimethamine mechanism of action?

66

Recurrent UTIs, Shigella, Salmonella, Pneumocystis jiroveci, Toxoplasma (pyrimethamine.)

Trimethoprim, pyrimethamine uses?

67

Megaloblastic anemia, myelosuppression. May alleviate with supplemental folinic acid.

Trimethoprim, pyrimethamine side effects?

68

Inhibit DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II and IV). Bactericidal.
- Must not be taken with antacids.

Fluoroquinolones mechanism of action?

69

Gram-negative rods of urinary, GI tracts, and osteomyelitis (including Pseudomonas.) Neisseria, some gram positive organisms like macrolide-resistant S. pneumonia.

Fluoroquinolones uses?

70

GI upset, superinfections, phototoxicity (skin rashes), headache, dizziness, increase QT interval. Damage cartilage in children. Tendonitis and tendon rupture in adults; leg cramps and myalgias in kids. Contraindicate with antacids/calcium, children, and pregnancy.

Fluoroquinolones side effects?

71

Forms free radical toxic metabolites in the bacterial cell that damage DNA. Bactericidal, antiprotozoal.

Metronidazole mechanism of action?

72

Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas, Gardnerella vaginalis, anaerobes (Bacteroides, Clostridium.) Used with bismuth and amoxicillin (or tetracycline) for "triple therapy" against H. Pylori.

Metronidazole
- GET GAP on the Metro with metronidazole!

73

Disulfiram-like reaction with alcohol; headache, metallic taste.

Metronidazole side effects?

74

Disrupts cell membrane.

Polymyxin mechanism of action?

75

Gram negative organisms.

Polymyxin uses?

76

Neurotoxicity, acute renal tubular necrosis.

Polymyxin side effects?

77

Inhibits synthesis of mycolic acids. Prodrug activated by mycobacterium's catalase (KatG).

Isoniazid mechanism of action?

78

Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The only agent used as solo prophylaxis against TB .

Isoniazid uses?

79

Neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, and sideroblastic anemia. Treat with pyridoxine (vitamin B6.) Induces hemolytic anemia in G6PD deficient patients. Drug induced SLE.

Isoniazid side effects?

80

Inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (transcription.)

Rifampin mechanism of action?

81

Mycobacterium tuberculosis; delays resistance to dapsone when used for leprosy. Used for meningococcal prophylaxis and chemoprophylaxis in contacts of children with Haemophilus influenzae type B.

Rifampin uses?

82

Minor hepatotoxicity and drug interactions (indces CYP-450); orange body fluids (nonhazardous side effect.)

Rifampin side effects?

83

Effective in acidic pH of phagolysosomes where TB engulfed by macrophages is found.

Pyrazinamide mechanism of action?

84

Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Pyrazinamide uses?

85

Hepatoxicity, hyperuricemia.

Pyrazinamide side effects?

86

Inhibits synthesis of arabinogalactan.(decreases carbohydrate polymerization by blocking arabinosyltransferase).

Ethambutol mechanism of action?

87

Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Ethambutol uses?

88

Retrobublar neuritis leading to decreased visual acuity and red-green color blindness.

Ethambutol side effects?

89

Binds ergosterol; forms membrane pores that allow leakage of electrolytes.

Amphotericin B mechanism of action?

90

Used for wide spectrum of systemic mycoses. Cryptococcus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Aspergillus, Histoplasma, Candida, Mucor (systemic mycoses). Intrathecally for fungal meningitis; does not cross blood-brain barrier.
- Supplement K and Mg because of altered renal tubule permeability.

Amphotericin B uses?

91

Fever/chills ("shake and bake"), hypotension, nephrotoxicity, arrhythmias, anemia, IV phlebitis ("amphoterrible"). Hydration reduces nephrotoxicity. Liposomal amphotericin reduces toxicity.

Amphotericin B side effects?

92

Binds to ergosterol, disrupting fungal membranes. Too toxic for systemic use.

Nystatin mechanism of action?

93

Swish and swallow for oral candidiasis (thrush); topical for diaper rash or vaginal candidiasis.

Nystatin uses?

94

Inhibits fungal ergosterol synthesis via 14-alpha-demethylase. (Inhibits the P-450 enzyme that converts lanosterol to ergosterol)

Fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole mechanism of action?

95

Fluconazole for Cryptococcus (crosses BBB) and Candidasis. Ketoconazole for Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Candida albicans, and hypercortisolism. Clotrimazole and miconazole for topical fungal infections. Itraconazole and voriconazole for aspergillosis and sporotrichosis.

Fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole uses?

96

Testosterone synthesis inhibition (gynecomastia), liver dysfunction (inhibits cytochrome P-450), fever, chills.

Fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole side effects?

97

Inhibits DNA synthesis by conversion to 5-fluorouracil; inhibits thymidylate synthase.

Flucytosine mechanism of action?

98

Used in systemic fungal infections (e.g., Candida, Cryptococcus) in combination with amphotericin B.

Flucytosine uses?

99

Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, myelosuppression suppression.

Flucytosine side effects?

100

Inhibits cell wall synthesis by inhibiting synthesis of beta-glucan.

Caspofungin, micafungin mechanism of action?

101

Invasive aspergillosis and candidiasis.

Caspofungin, micafungin uses?

102

GI upset, flushing (histamine release)

Caspofungin, micafungin side effects?

103

Inhibits 2,3-squalene epoxidase.

Terbinafine mechanism of action?

104

Dermatophytoses (especially onychomycosis.)

Terbinafine uses?

105

Elevated AST/ALT, visual disturbances.

Terbinafine side effects?

106

Interferes with microtubule function; disrupts mitosis. Deposits in keratin-containing tissues (e.g., nails).

Griseofulvin mechanism of action?

107

Oral treatment of superficial infections; inhibits growth of dermatophytes (tinea, ringworm).

Griseofulvin uses?

108

Teratogenic, carcinogenic, confusion, headaches, induces P-450 and thus increases warfarin metabolism. Disulfiram like reaction.

Griseofulvin side effects?

109

Blocks viral penetration/uncoating (M2 protein); may buffer pH of endosome. Also causes the release of dopamine from intact nerve terminals. Muscarinic antagonist.

Amantadine mechanism of action?

110

Prophylaxis and treatment for influenza A; Parkinson's disease.

Amantadine uses?

111

Ataxia, dizziness, slurred speech. Livedo reticularis and anti-muscarinic like effects.

Amantadine side effects?

112

Inhibit influenza neuraminidase, decreasing the release of progeny virus.

Zanamivir, oseltamivir mechanism of action?

113

Influenza A and B.

Zanamivir, oseltamivir uses?

114

Mech: Inhibits synthesis of guanine nucleotides by competitively inhibiting IMP dehydrogenase. Inhibits RNA polymerase.

Ribavirin mechanism of action?

115

Used for RSV, HepC, Lassa fever, Hantavirus (RNA viruses)

Ribavirin uses?

116

SE: Hematotoxic (anemia). Severe teratogen. Contraindicate with pregnant women.

Ribavirin side effects?

117

Mech: Monophosphorylated by HSV NZV thymidine kinase. Guanosine analog. Triphosphate formed by cellular enzymes. Preferentially inhibits viral DNA polymerase by chain termination.

Acyclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir mechanism of action?

118

Used for HSV and VZV (famciclovir)

Acyclovir, famciclovir, valacyclovir uses?

119

Mech: 5'-monophosphate formed by a CMV viral kinase or HSVNZV thymidine kinase.Guanosine analog. Triphosphate formed by cellular kinases. Preferentially inhibits viral DNA polymerase.

Ganciclovir mechanism of action?

120

Used for CMV, especially in immunocompromised patients.

Ganciclovir uses?

121

SE: Myelosupppression, thrombocytopenia, renal toxicity (maintain hydration.)

Ganciclovir side effects?

122

Mech: Inhibits DNA and RNA polymerase by binding to the pyrophosphate binding site of enzyme. Does not require activation by viral kinase.

Foscarnet, Cidofovir mechanism of action?

123

Used for CMV retinitis in immunocompromised patients when ganciclovir fails; acyclovir-resistant HSV.

Foscarnet, Cidofovir (Long Half-life)

124

SE: Nephrotoxicity (binds calcium and magnesium.) No myelosuppression! Contraindicate with pentamidine or other nephrotoxic drugs.

Foscarnet, Cidofovir side effects?

125

Mech: Protease inhibitor (prevent maturation of new viruses)
- Assembly of visions depends on HIV-1 protease (pol gene), which cleaves the polypeptide products of HIV mRNA into their functional parts.

Lopinavir, atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, Indinavir mechanism of action?

126

Mech: HIV with 2 NRTIs. Ritonavir can "boost" other drugs by inhbiitng CYP-4450.

Lopinavir, atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, Indinavir uses?

127

SE: GI intolerance (nausea, diarrhea), gout, hyperglycemia (insulin resistance), lipodystrophy (central adiposity), thrombocytopenia (indinavir). Contraindicate in coronary artery disease. Atazanavir has less association with lipodystrophy and hyperglycemia.

Lopinavir, atazanavir, darunavir, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, Indinavir side effects?

128

Mech: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Competitively inhibit nucleotide binding to reverse transcriptase, causes chain termination (lack of 3' OH group)

Tenofovir, emtricitabine, abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine, dianosine, stavudine mechanism of action?

129

Used for HIV with another NTRI and a PI/NNRTI/ISTI/FI/CCR5-antagonist, HepB (lamivudine)

Tenofovir, emtricitabine, abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine, dianosine, stavudine uses?

130

SE: Myelosuppression (Zidovudine), hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity (Tenofovir), pancreatitis/peripheral neuropathy (Zalcitabine and Didanosine), hypersensitivity (abacavir - do HLA-B5701 testing).

Tenofovir, emtricitabine, abacavir, lamivudine, zidovudine, dianosine, stavudine side effects?

131

Mech: Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. Non-competitive inhibitor of reverse transcriptase at different site than NRTI's. Does not require phosphorylation to be active.

Nevirapine, efavirenz, delavirdine mechanism of action?

132

Used for HIV with 2 NRTIs. Single dose nevirapine for HIV+ mother during delivery.

Nevirapine, efavirenz, delavirdine uses?

133

SE: Dysphoric dreams, teratogenic (efavirenz), hepatotoxic and induce CYP450 (nevirapine.) Contraindicate with neuropsychiatric history and pregnancy.

Nevirapine, efavirenz, delavirdine side effects?

134

Mech: Fusion inhibitor. Bind viral gp41 subunit; inhibit conformational change required for fusion with CD4 cells. Therefore block entry and subsequent replication.

Enfuvirtide mechanism of action?

135

Used for HIV salvage therapy with 2 NRTIs.

Enfuvirtide uses?

136

SE: Hypersensitivity reactions, reactions at subcutaneous injection site, increased risk of bacterial pneumonia.

Enfuvirtide side effects?

137

Mech: Integrase inhibitor.

Raltegravir mechanism of action?

138

Used for HIV with 2 NRTIs.

Raltegravir, Maraviroc uses?

139

SE: Hypercholesterolemia.

Raltegravir side effects?

140

Mech: CCR-5 antagonist.

Maraviroc mechanism of action?

141

Mech: Inhibits DNA polymerase.

Cidofovir mechanism of action?

142

Used for: CMV, especially in immunocompromised patients.

Cidofovir uses?

143

SE: Nephrotoxicity.

Cidofovir side effects?

144

Used for Hep B/C/D, HHV-8 (Kaposi's sarcoma), CML, multiple myeloma, renal carcinoma, melanoma (alpha interferon). Multiple sclerosis (beta inferferon). Chronic granulomatous disease (gamma interferon.)

Interferon alpha/beta/gamma uses?

145

Used for Trypanosoma cruzi

Nifurtimox uses?

146

Used for Trypanosoma gambiense and rhodesiense (blood borne)

Suramin uses?

147

Used for Trypanosoma gambiense and rhodesiense (CNS penetration)

Melarsoprol uses?

148

Mech: Increases calcium influx, leading to vaculization.

Praziquantal mechanism of action?

149

Used for Cestodes and flukes - Taenia solium, Diphyllobothrium latum, Schistosoma, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani/

Praziquantal uses?

150

Mech: Inhibit glucose uptake, disrupts microtubular structure.

Mebendazole/Albendazole mechanism of action?

151

Used for SCABIES. Nematodes - Echinococcus granulosus, Taenia solium (neurocysticercosis), Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis, Trichinella spiralis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis****.

Mebendazole/Albendazole uses?

152

Used for Strongyloides stercoralis, onchocera volvulus

Ivermectin uses?

153

Used for Leishmaniasis

Sodium stibogluconate uses?

154

Used for Babesia microti

Quinine plus clindamycin uses?

155

Mech: Nicotinic agonist leading to spastic paralysis.

Pyrantel pamoate mechanism of action?

156

Used for Nematodes - Ascaris lumbricoides, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus

Pyrantel pamoate uses?

157

Used for Loa loa, Wuchereria bancrofti, toxocara canis

Diethylcarbamazine uses?

158

Used for: Dracunculus medinerisis

Niridazole uses?

159

Mech: Blocks detoxification of heme into hemozoin. Heme accumulates and is toxic to plasmodia.

Chloroquine mechanism of action?

160

Used for: Erythrocyte form of P. vivax, ovale, malariae, falciparum.

Chloroquine uses?

161

SE: Hemolytic anemia in G6PD deficiency, cinchonism (alpha and muscarinic antagonist) - blurred/double vision, GI toxicity, tinnitus, cardiac arrythmias, hypotension, Retinopathy.

Chloroquine side effects?

162

Mech: Inhibit heme synthesis, causing toxic buildup.

Mefloquine mechanism of action?

163

Used for: Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium species.

Mefloquine uses?

164

SE: Hemolytic anemia in G6PD deficiency, cinchonism (alpha and muscarinic antagonist) - blurred/double vision, GI toxicity, tinnitus, cardiac arrythmias, hypotension.

Mefloquine side effects?

165

Mech: Oxidant, inhibits DNA synthesis.

Primaquine mechanism of action?

166

Used for: Liver form of Plasmodium vivax and ovale.

Primaquine uses?

167

SE: Hemolytic anemia in G6PD deficiency, cinchonism (alpha and muscarinic antagonist) - blurred/double vision, GI toxicity, tinnitus, cardiac arrythmias, hypotension.

Primaquine side effects?

168

Mech: Block Plasmodium endoplasmic ATPase.

Artemisinin, amodiaquine mechanism of action?

169

Used for Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium species.

Artemisinin, amodiaquine uses?

170

Mech: Damages bacterial DNA.

Nitrofurantoin mechanism of action?

171

Used for UTIs (E. coli, broad spectrum). Highly excreted in the urine.

Nitrofurantoin uses?

172

Mech: Protease inhibitor.

Telaprevir, boceprevir mechanism of action?

173

Used for Hepatitis C.

Telaprevir, boceprevir uses?

174

Used for Pneumocystis if patien't can't tolerate TMP-SMX or if they are immunosupressed (doesn't cause myelosuppression).

Atovaquone uses?

175

Used for Pneumocystis if patien't can't tolerate TMP-SMX

Pentamidine uses?

176

SE: Nephrotoxic

Pentamidine side effects?

177

Mech: Neurotoxic; binds and activates sodium channels

Permethrin mechanism of action?

178

Scabies drug of choice

Permethrin uses?

179

Mech: Antibody against RSV F protein.

Palivizumab mechanism of action?

180

Used for: Respiratory syncytial virus

Palivizumab uses?

181

Organisms not typically covered by cephalosporins

LAME: Listeria, Atypicals (Chlamydia, Mycoplasma), MRSA, and Enterococci
- Exception: Ceftaroline covers MRSA

182

Cephalosporin that treats meningitis and gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

183

Cephalosporin that treats Pseudomonas

Ceftazidime

184

Resistance to Vancomysin occurs how?

Amino acid change of D-ala D-ala to D-ala D-lac.

185

30S Inhibitors and 50S Inhibitors

"Buy AT 30, CCEL (sell) at 50"
- 30S: Aminoglycosides (bactericidal) and Tetracyclines (bacteriostatic)
- 50S: Chlorampenicol, Clindamycin (bacteriostatic), Erythromycin (macrolides)(bacteriostatic), Linezolid (variable)

186

Aminoglycosides

"Mean" (aMINoglycosides) GNATS caNNOT kill anaerobes.
- Gentamicin, Neomycin, Amikacin, Tobramycin, Streptomycin

187

Do not take with milk, antacids, or iron-containing preparations because divalent cations inhibit its absorption in the gut.

Tetracyclines

188

ADH Antagonist; acts as a Diuretic in SIADH and rarely used as an antibiotic?

Demeclocycline

189

Macrolides

Azythromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromicin

190

Mech: Inhibits protein synthesis by blocking translocations ("macroSLIDES"); bind to the 23S rRNA of the 50S ribosomal unit. Bacteriostatic

Macrolides (Azythromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromicin)

191

Used for Atypical pneumonias (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Legionella), STDs (Chlamydia), and gram positive cocci (strep infections in pts allergic to penicillin)

Macrolides (Azythromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromicin)

192

SE: Motility Issues, Arrhythmia caused by prolonged QT, acute Cholestatic hepatitis, Rash, eOsinophilia.
- Increases serum concentration of theophillines, oral anticoagulants.

Macrolides (Azythromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromicin)
- MACRO

193

AE: Kernicterus in fetus/baby

Sulfonamides

194

AE: Ototoxicity in fetus/baby

Aminoglycosides

195

AE: Cartilage Damage in fetus/baby

Fluoroquinolones

196

AE: Embryotoxic in fetus/baby

Clarithromycin

197

AE: Discolored teeth, inhibition of bone growth in fetus/baby

Tetracyclines

198

AE: Teratogenic

Griseofulvin (antifungal) and Ribavirin (antiviral)

199

AE: "Gray baby"

Chloramphenicol

200

Antibiotics to avoid in Pregnancy

"SAFe Children Take Really Good Care"
- Sulfonamides, Aminoglycosides, Fluoroquinolones, Clarithromycin, Tetracyclines, Ribavirin (antiviral), Griseofulvin (antifungal), Chloramphenicol

201

Prophylactic for Meningococcal infection

- Ciprofloxacin (DOC), rifampin for kids

202

Prophylactic for Gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

203

Prophylactic for Syphilis

Benzathine Penicillin G

204

Prophylactic for History of recurrent UTIs

TMP-SMX

205

Prophylactic for Endocarditis with surgical or dental procedures

Penicillins

206

Prophylactic for Pregnant women carrying group B strep

Ampicillin

207

Prophylactic for strep pharyngitis in child with prior rheumatic fever

Oral penicillin

208

Prophylactic for prevention of post surgical infection due to S. aureus

Cefazolin

209

Prophylactic for prevention of gonococcal or chlamydial conjunctivitis in newborn

Erythromycin ointment