Flashcards in MICRO - Virology Deck (99):
What are the families of DNA viruses?
Circular DNA virus (2)
"HooP or HeaP or Hep Pap"
DNA virus that is not icosahedral
Pox (too big)
DNA virus that does not replicate in the nucleus
Pox (carries its own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase)
Naked DNA viruses
"Naked for a PAP smear"
Enveloped DNA viruses
What host cell receptor does HIV gp120 bind?
What host cell receptor does EBV gp350 bind?
What host cell receptor does Parvovirus B19 bind?
Erythrocyte P antigen
What is the pathway of DNA replication in HBV?
dsDNA -> Template + RNA -> Progeny dsDNA
What virus is not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase?
What does HSV-1 cause?
Oral (and some genital) lesions
What does HSV-2 cause?
Genital (and some oral lesions)
What does HHV-6 cause?
Roseola (exanthem subitum)
*3-day fever following a rash
#1 cause of hemorrhagic cystitis in children
What does adenovirus cause?
Conjunctivitis ("pink eye")
*Found in swimming pools!
Where does Parvovirus replicate?
What are the 2 types of papovavirus?
What is caused by poxvirus?
Vaccinia (cowpox, "milkmaid's blisters")
Molluscum contagiosum (umbilicated papules)
What are the 5 Picornaviruses?
What are the 2 Caliciviruses?
What are the 2 Reoviruses?
What are the 5 Flaviviruses?
St. Louis encephalitis
West Nile virus
What are the 3 Togaviruses?
Rubella (German measles)
Eastern/Western equine encephalitis
"East and West German togas"
What are the Orthomyxoviruses?
What are the Paramyxoviruses?
What are the 2 Retroviruses?
What family contains the Rabies virus?
What family contains the Ebola virus?
What are the 4 Bunyaviruses?
Sandfly/Rift Valley fevers
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
What are the 3 families of RNA viruses that are NONenveloped?
What is the only enveloped virus that does not acquire its membrane from the host plasma membrane?
Herpesvirus, uses nuclear membrane
What virus is diploid?
What type of vaccines induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity?
Live attenuated vaccines
What type of vaccines induce only humoral immunity?
What 7 viruses have live attenuated vaccines?
Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)
What 4 viruses have killed vaccines?
Salk polio (SalK = Killed)
What virus has a recombinant vaccine?
What is reassortment?
Viruses with segmented genomes exchange segments
Can cause worldwide pandemics
*Ex: Influenza A
What are the 4 families of viruses that can have reassortment?
"BOAR", all segmented genomes
What is complementation?
Nonmutated virus "complements" the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses
How does Rubella present?
Maculopapular rash (head -> feet)
Posterior auricular lymphadenopathy
Sequelae include polyarthritis
Triad of Congenital Rubella
Cardiac malformations (PDA)
What does Echovirus cause?
What does Coxsackievirus cause (4)?
Herpangina (febrile pharyngitis)
Hand, foot, and mouth disease
What does Reovirus cause?
Colorado tick fever
What is the #1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children?
What is carried by the vector Aedes aegypti (mosquito)?
Yellow fever (Flavivirus)
What family of viruses has a double icosahedral capsid?
What are the 2 diseases caused by slow virus infections?
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE, 6-15yrs post-measles)
PML (JC virus)
What family is most notable for making one huge polypeptide, cleaved by proteases?
But, generally can be done by all SS+ linear RNA viruses
What is the only acid-labile picornavirus?
What does Rhinovirus bind to?
How many serotypes do each of the PaRaMyxoviruses have?
Parainfluenza = 4
RSV = 2
Measles/Mumps = 1
What virus carries its own polymerase in its capsid, and loses its virulence without it?
What are the symptoms of Mumps?
What are the 3 C's of Measles?
Coryza (acute rhinitis)
What are the 2 possible sequelae of Measles?
Giant cell pneumonia
What is another name for Measles?
What is the use of Zanamivir and Oseltamivir?
Neuramidase inhibitors used for influenza A and B
What are the 2 antigens of influenza viruses?
What are the 3 symptoms of Yellow fever
Bone marrow suppression ("Breakbone fever")
Antibodies to virus ENHANCE viral uptake
Dengue fever (flavivirus)
What 3 families are included under the title Arbovirus?
*All transmitted by arthropods (mosquito, tick)
What hepatitis virus is worse if contracted at a young age?
Why is there no effective immunity to Hepatitis C?
Antigenic variety of HCV envelope proteins
What do each of the pnemonics stand for in the Hepatitis viruses?
A = Asymptomatic (usually)
B = Blood borne
C = Chronic, Cirrhosis, Carcinoma, Carriers
D = Defective, Dependent on HBV
E = Enteric, Epidemics, Expectant mothers
What are the 2 viral diseases that present with posterior auricular lymphadenopathy?
Herpesviruses (95% HSV-1)
Best test to detect active Hepatitis A
Continued presence indicates carrier state
Immunity to Hepatitis B
Positive during window period
Also in HBV core
Indicator of transmissibility
Increases vertical transmission
Indicates LOW transmissibility
What is the Rx for babies of mothers with Hepatitis B?
Give hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) followed by active immunization with recombinant HBV vaccine
What protein is the rectangular nucleocapsid protein of HIV?
What does the HIV gene POL encode?
What does the HIV gene ENV encode?
What does the HIV gene REV encode?
Transports unspliced viral transcripts out of nucleus
What does the HIV gene TAT encode?
Activates other genes
What does the HIV gene NEF encode?
Increases viral replication via downregulation of CD4 and MHC-I
Which 2 HIV genes are required for viral replication?
How is HIV diagnosed?
Western blot for glycoproteins (specific)
How is HIV monitored?
Viral load tests
What 2 genes confer immunity against HIV
"4 and 5"
What gene confers rapid progression to AIDS?
Angiosarcoma-like proliferation of stromal cells
HHV-8 (Kaposi's sarcoma)
How do you treat Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex?
"Hat-shaped" cells in AIDS patient
What are 3 protozoan infections seen in AIDS?
Isospora belli (Rx = TMP-SMX)
A pregnant woman is exposed to parvovirus at 8 weeks gestation. What will be the effect on the fetus?
Aplastic anemia, resulting in non-immune hydrops fetalis
What layer of the epidermis is infected by HPV?
What mediates the attachment of mumpsvirus to epithelial cells?
Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein
What are the preferred drugs for herpes zoster?
*Use of acyclovir would require large doses