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Flashcards in MICRO - Virology Deck (99):
1

Questions

Answers

2

What are the families of DNA viruses?

Hepadnavirus
Herpesvirus
Adenovirus
Parvovirus
Papovavirus
Poxvirus

3

ssDNA virus

Parvovirus

4

Circular DNA virus (2)

Hepadnavirus
Papovavirus (supercoiled)

"HooP or HeaP or Hep Pap"

5

dsRNA

Reovirus

6

DNA virus that is not icosahedral

Pox (too big)

7

DNA virus that does not replicate in the nucleus

Pox (carries its own DNA-dependent RNA polymerase)

8

Naked DNA viruses

Parvo
Adeno
Papova

"Naked for a PAP smear"

9

Enveloped DNA viruses

Hepadna
Pox
Herpes

10

What host cell receptor does HIV gp120 bind?

CD4+

11

What host cell receptor does EBV gp350 bind?

CD21

12

What host cell receptor does Parvovirus B19 bind?

Erythrocyte P antigen

13

What is the pathway of DNA replication in HBV?

dsDNA -> Template + RNA -> Progeny dsDNA

14

What virus is not a retrovirus but has reverse transcriptase?

HBV

15

What does HSV-1 cause?

Oral (and some genital) lesions
Keratoconjunctivitis

16

What does HSV-2 cause?

Genital (and some oral lesions)

17

What does HHV-6 cause?

Roseola (exanthem subitum)

*3-day fever following a rash

18

#1 cause of hemorrhagic cystitis in children

Adenovirus

19

What does adenovirus cause?

Febrile pharyngitis
Pneumonia
Conjunctivitis ("pink eye")

*Found in swimming pools!

20

Where does Parvovirus replicate?

Bone marrow

21

What are the 2 types of papovavirus?

HPV
JC (PML)

22

What is caused by poxvirus?

Small pox
Vaccinia (cowpox, "milkmaid's blisters")
Molluscum contagiosum (umbilicated papules)

23

What are the 5 Picornaviruses?

Poliovirus
Echovirus
Rhinovirus
Coxsackievirus
HAV

"PERCH"

24

What are the 2 Caliciviruses?

HEV
Norwalk virus

25

What are the 2 Reoviruses?

Reovirus
Rotavirus

26

What are the 5 Flaviviruses?

HCV
Yellow fever
Dengue fever
St. Louis encephalitis
West Nile virus

27

What are the 3 Togaviruses?

Rubella (German measles)
Eastern/Western equine encephalitis

"East and West German togas"

28

What are the Orthomyxoviruses?

Influenza virus

29

What are the Paramyxoviruses?

Parainfluenza
RSV
Measles
Mumps

"PaRaMyxovirus"

30

What are the 2 Retroviruses?

HIV
HTLV

31

What family contains the Rabies virus?

Rhabdovirus

32

What family contains the Ebola virus?

Filovirus

33

What are the 4 Bunyaviruses?

California encephalitis
Sandfly/Rift Valley fevers
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Hantavirus

34

What are the 3 families of RNA viruses that are NONenveloped?

Calicivirus
Picornavirus
Reovirus

"Naked CPR"

35

What is the only enveloped virus that does not acquire its membrane from the host plasma membrane?

Herpesvirus, uses nuclear membrane

36

What virus is diploid?

Retrovirus

37

What type of vaccines induce both humoral and cell-mediated immunity?

Live attenuated vaccines

38

What type of vaccines induce only humoral immunity?

Killed vaccines

39

What 7 viruses have live attenuated vaccines?

Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR)
Sabin polio
VZV
Yellow fever
Smallpox

40

What 4 viruses have killed vaccines?

Rabies
Influenza
HAV
Salk polio (SalK = Killed)

41

What virus has a recombinant vaccine?

HBV

42

What is reassortment?

Viruses with segmented genomes exchange segments
Can cause worldwide pandemics

*Ex: Influenza A

43

What are the 4 families of viruses that can have reassortment?

Bunyavirus
Orthomyxovirus
Arenavirus
Reovirus

"BOAR", all segmented genomes

44

What is complementation?

Nonmutated virus "complements" the mutated one by making a functional protein that serves both viruses

45

How does Rubella present?

Low-grade fever
Maculopapular rash (head -> feet)
Posterior auricular lymphadenopathy
Sequelae include polyarthritis

46

Triad of Congenital Rubella

Sensorineural deafness
Cataracts
Cardiac malformations (PDA)

47

What does Echovirus cause?

Aseptic meningitis

48

What does Coxsackievirus cause (4)?

Aseptic meningitis
Herpangina (febrile pharyngitis)
Hand, foot, and mouth disease
Myocarditis

49

What does Reovirus cause?

Colorado tick fever

50

What is the #1 cause of fatal diarrhea in children?

Rotavirus

51

What is carried by the vector Aedes aegypti (mosquito)?

Yellow fever (Flavivirus)

52

What family of viruses has a double icosahedral capsid?

Reovirus

53

What are the 2 diseases caused by slow virus infections?

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE, 6-15yrs post-measles)
PML (JC virus)

54

What family is most notable for making one huge polypeptide, cleaved by proteases?

Picornavirus
But, generally can be done by all SS+ linear RNA viruses

55

What is the only acid-labile picornavirus?

Rhinovirus

56

What does Rhinovirus bind to?

ICAM-1

57

How many serotypes do each of the PaRaMyxoviruses have?

Parainfluenza = 4
RSV = 2
Measles/Mumps = 1

58

What virus carries its own polymerase in its capsid, and loses its virulence without it?

Reovirus

59

What are the symptoms of Mumps?

Meningitis
Orchitis
Parotitis

"MOP"

60

What are the 3 C's of Measles?

Cough
Coryza (acute rhinitis)
Conjunctivitis

61

What are the 2 possible sequelae of Measles?

SSPE
Giant cell pneumonia

62

What is another name for Measles?

Rubeola

63

What is the use of Zanamivir and Oseltamivir?

Neuramidase inhibitors used for influenza A and B

64

What are the 2 antigens of influenza viruses?

Hemagglutinin
Neuraminidase

65

What are the 3 symptoms of Yellow fever

Fever
Jaundice
Black vomitus

66

Bone marrow suppression ("Breakbone fever")
Antibodies to virus ENHANCE viral uptake
Hemorrhagic fever

Dengue fever (flavivirus)

67

What 3 families are included under the title Arbovirus?

Flavivirus
Togavirus
Bunyavirus

*All transmitted by arthropods (mosquito, tick)

68

What hepatitis virus is worse if contracted at a young age?

Hepatitis B

69

Why is there no effective immunity to Hepatitis C?

Antigenic variety of HCV envelope proteins

70

What do each of the pnemonics stand for in the Hepatitis viruses?

A = Asymptomatic (usually)
B = Blood borne
C = Chronic, Cirrhosis, Carcinoma, Carriers
D = Defective, Dependent on HBV
E = Enteric, Epidemics, Expectant mothers

71

What are the 2 viral diseases that present with posterior auricular lymphadenopathy?

Mono
Rubella

72

Neonatal encephalitis

Herpesviruses (95% HSV-1)

73

Best test to detect active Hepatitis A

IgM HAVAb

74

HBsAg

Continued presence indicates carrier state

75

HBsAb

Immunity to Hepatitis B

76

HBcAb

Positive during window period

77

HBeAg

Also in HBV core
Indicator of transmissibility
Increases vertical transmission

78

HBeAb

Indicates LOW transmissibility

79

What is the Rx for babies of mothers with Hepatitis B?

Give hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) followed by active immunization with recombinant HBV vaccine

80

What protein is the rectangular nucleocapsid protein of HIV?

p24

81

What does the HIV gene POL encode?

Reverse transcriptase
Integrase
Protease

82

What does the HIV gene ENV encode?

gp160

83

What does the HIV gene REV encode?

Transports unspliced viral transcripts out of nucleus

84

What does the HIV gene TAT encode?

Activates other genes
"Virulence gene"

85

What does the HIV gene NEF encode?

Increases viral replication via downregulation of CD4 and MHC-I

86

Which 2 HIV genes are required for viral replication?

REV
TAT

87

How is HIV diagnosed?

ELISA (sensitive)
Western blot for glycoproteins (specific)

88

How is HIV monitored?

PCR
Viral load tests

89

What 2 genes confer immunity against HIV

CCR5
CXCR4

"4 and 5"

90

What gene confers rapid progression to AIDS?

CXCR1

91

Angiosarcoma-like proliferation of stromal cells

HHV-8 (Kaposi's sarcoma)

92

How do you treat Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex?

Azithromycin

93

"Hat-shaped" cells in AIDS patient

PCP

94

What are 3 protozoan infections seen in AIDS?

Toxoplasmosis
Cryptosporidiosis
Isospora belli (Rx = TMP-SMX)

95

A pregnant woman is exposed to parvovirus at 8 weeks gestation. What will be the effect on the fetus?

Aplastic anemia, resulting in non-immune hydrops fetalis

96

What layer of the epidermis is infected by HPV?

Stratum basale

97

What mediates the attachment of mumpsvirus to epithelial cells?

Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoprotein

98

What are the preferred drugs for herpes zoster?

Famciclovir
Valacyclovir

*Use of acyclovir would require large doses

99

What are the 4 enteroviruses that cause meningitis?

Coxsackievirus
Echovirus
Poliovirus
Enterovirus