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Flashcards in Micro - Viruses Deck (108):
1

DNA viruses - 3 rules of thumb

all dsDNA (except parvovirus, which is ss)

all linear (except papilloma, polyoma (circular, supercoiled), and hepadna- (circular, incomplete))

all non-enveloped (except Herpes-, Hepadna-, which are enveloped)

2

Herpesviruses - name all

HSV1 (oral)
HSV2 (genital)
HSV3 (VZV)
HSV4 (EBV)
HSV5 (CMV)
HSV6 (Roseola)
HSV8 (Kaposi)

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

3

herpesvirus that causes Roseola

HSV6
dsDNA, linear, enveloped

4

herpesvirus that causes VZV

HSV3
dsDNA, linear, enveloped

5

herpesvirus that causes EBV

HSV4
dsDNA, linear, enveloped

6

herpesvirus that causes Kaposi

HSV8
dsDNA, linear, enveloped

7

herpesvirus that causes CMV

HSV5
dsDNA, linear, enveloped

8

herpesvirus that causes oral lesions

HSV1
dsDNA, linear, enveloped

9

herpesvirus that causes genital lesions

HSV2
dsDNA, linear, enveloped

10

herpesvirus features

Enveloped, dsDNA, linear

11

hepaDNAvirus - examples + features

HBV - enveloped, partially dsDNA and circular

12

Adenovirus - features

dsDNA, linear, non-enveloped

13

parvovirus - examples + features

Parvo B19

no envelope, ssDNA and linear (smallest DNA virus)

14

papillomavirus - examples + features

HPV

no envelope, dsDNA and circular

15

Polyomavirus - examples + features

JC virus
BK virus

no envelope, dsDNA and circular

16

Poxvirus - examples + features

Smallpox
Cowpox
Molluscum contagiosum

enveloped, dsDNA and linear (largest DNA virus)

17

HSV1 - clinical features (transmission, presentation, treatment)

transmission: respiratory droplets, saliva

ORAL (some genital) lesions - swollen gums w/ ulcerative lesions, enlarged tender CERVICAL LN

temporal lobe encephalitis (cowdry type A inclusion)

keratoconjunctivitis

treatment: acyclovir


dsDNA, linear, enveloped

18

HSV1 - where does it establish latency in?

trigeminal ganglia

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

19

HSV2 - clinical features (transmission, presentation, treatment)

sex, perinatally

GENITAL (some oral) lesions

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

20

HSV3 - clinical features (transmission, presentation, treatment)

respiratory secretions

chicken pox (begins on trunk and spreads to face and extremities)

shingles (post-herpetic neuralgia)

both can cause encephalitis, pneumonia

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

21

HSV3 - where does it establish latency in?

DRG or CNV ganglia

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

22

HSV4 - clinical features (transmission, presentation, diagnosis)

EBV

respiratory secretions, saliva

mono (profound fatigue, myalgias, fever, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomeagly, sore throat)

Infects B cells -> cause atypical CD8 T cells ""Downey Cells

Monospot test (+) - heterophile antibodies that agglutinate sheep RBC

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

23

HSV4 causes two types of malignancies in two different populations

Hodgkin lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma (Africa, involves jaw)

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (Japan, China, involves nostrils, pharynx, maxillary sinuses)"

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

24

What is the monospot test used for?

distinguish between CMV and EBV, both can cause mono-like sx (profound fatigue, myalgias, fever, posterior cervical lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomeagly, sore throat)


EBV/HSV4 = Monospot test (+) heterophile antibodies agglutinate sheep RBC

CMV/HSV5 = Monospot test (-) heterophile antibodies do not agglutinate sheep RBC

25

HSV5 - clinical features (transmission, presentation, diagnosis)

CMV

- transmission: sex, organ transplants

- AIDs CD4 <50 - also w/ mono sx (but Monospot test (-)), retinitis/scotoma, interstitial pneumonia

- congential - ToRCHHes - sensorineural hearing loss, seizures, petechial rash

trmt: gangciclovir

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

26

where does CMV establish latency in?

mononuclear cells - see Owl eye inclusions

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

27

HSV6 - clinical features (transmission, presentation, diagnosis)

Roseola

transmitted via saliva

high fevers followed by diffuse macular rash, can cause febrile seizures; affects infants

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

28

HSV8 - clinical features (transmission, presentation, diagnosis)

Kaposi

transmitted via sex; common in HIV, transplant patients

endothelial cell neoplasm -> violaceous, flat nodular skin lesions

dsDNA, linear, enveloped

29

Adenovirus - clinical features (transmission, presentation, diagnosis)

pharyngitis, sore throat, pink eye (conjunctivitis) pneumonia, acute hemorrhagic cystitis

occurs in small outbreaks among individuals living together in close quarters (military barracks, camp dorms)

ø treatment

dsDNA, linear, non-enveloped

30

Parvovirus B19 - clinical picture in fetus, children, adults, and sickle cell patients?

fetus: hydrops fetalis

children: slapped cheek rash that spreads to the rest of the body

adults: anemia + RA-like sx

Sickle cell dz: aplastic anemia

ssDNA, linear, non-enveloped

31

Papillomavirus - clinical picture

HPV

6/11 = Condyloma acuminata (warts); koilocytes

16/18 = cervical cancer

dsDNA, circular, non-enveloped

32

Polyomavirus - clinical picture

JC virus PML in HIV patients; increased risk with Natalizumab
BK transplant patients, commonly targets kidney

dsDNA, circular, non-enveloped

33

Smallpox

eradicated

dsDNA, linear, non-enveloped

34

cowpox

milkmaid blisters

dsDNA, linear, non-enveloped

35

Molluscum contagiosum

poxvirus

flesh-colored dome lesions w/ umbilicated dimple;

common in wrestlers, immunosuppressed

dsDNA, linear, non-enveloped

36

RNA viruses - rule of thumbs

all ss (except Reoviridae)

all enveloped (except Reo, picorna, hepe, and calici)

all circular except (arena, bunya, and delta, which are circular

only multi-segmented viruses are: Reo, orthomyxo, arena, and bunya (BOAR)

(+) stranded: I went to a retro toga party where I drank flavored corona and ate hippy California pickles

(-) sense: Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication

37

Reoviruses - examples + features

Rotavirus - DS RNA linear,10- 12 seg, ø envelope

38

PicoRNAvirus - examples + features

Poliovirus
Echovirus
Rhinovirus
Coxsackie virus
HAV

all ssRNA + linear, ø envelope

"PERCH on a Peak" - F/O spread (except Rhino); all can cause aspetic meningitis (except Rhino and HAV)

39

Hepevirus - example + features

HEV - ssRNA + linear, ø envelope

40

Calcivirus - example + features

Norovirus - SSRNA (+) linear, ø envelope

41

Flavivirus - example + features

HCV
Yellow Fever
Dengue
St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE)
West Nile

all SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

42

Toga virus - example + features

Rubella
Eastern Equine Encephalitis
Western Equine Encephalitis

SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

43

Retroviruses - example + features

HTLV
HIV

SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

44

Corona virus

SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

45

Orthomyxovirus - example + features

Influenza
SS RNA (-) linear, 8 seg, enveloped

46

Paramyxovirus - example + features

SSRNA (-) linear, , enveloped, all contain surface F (fusion) protein, which causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multi-nucleated cells

Parainfluenza
RSV
Measles
Mumps

PaRaMyxovirus

47

Rhabdovirus - examples + features

Rabies

SSRNA (-) linear, enveloped

48

Filovirus - examples + features

Ebola

SSRNA (-) linear, enveloped

49

Arenavirus - examples + features

LCMV
Lassa Fever encephalitis

SSRNA (-) circular, 2 seg, enveloped

50

Bunyavirus - examples + features

California encephalitis
Sandfly/Rift Valley Fever
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Hantavirus

SSRNA (-) circular, 3 seg, enveloped

51

Delta virus - examples + features

HDV

SSRNA (-) circular, enveloped

52

Rotavirus - clinical feature +

Reovirus, DSRNA linear,10- 12 seg, ø envelope

pediatrics gastroenteritis - esp during winter time in day-care centers
Destruction w. atrophy of villi -> incr. Na/K loss -> Right Out The Anus

53

Poliovirus - vaccines

PicoRNAvirus, SSRNA (+) linear, ø envelope

"Salk - killed
Sabin - live attenuated"

54

Echovirus - clinical features

PicoRNAvirus, SSRNA (+) linear, ø envelope

aseptic meningitis (incr. lymphocytes, decr. PMN, normal glucose)

55

Rhinovirus - clinical features

PicoRNAvirus, SSRNA (+) linear, ø envelope

common cold, >100 serotypes

ACID LABILE (destroyed by stomach acid and therefore does not infect the GI tract unlike the other picoRNAs)

56

Coxsackie virus - clinical features

PicoRNAvirus, SSRNA (+) linear, ø envelope

aseptic meningitis, herpangina (mouth blisters, fever)

HFMD (vesicular rash on palms and soles, oral mucosa), myocarditis, pericarditis

57

Norovirus - clinical features

Calcivirus, SSRNA (+) linear, ø envelope

viral gasteroenteritis

58

Yellow fever - clinical features

Flavivirus SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

arbovirus transmitted via Aedes mosquito
reservoir: monkey or humans; transmitted via Aedes mosquito

sx: high fever, BLACK VOMIT, jaundice

59

Dengue - features

Flavivirus SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

60

St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE) - features

Flavivirus SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

61

West Nile - features

Flavivirus SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

62

Rubella - clinical features in neonates, children,

Togavirus SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped


Congenital: ToRCHHes - blueberry muffin appearance (extramedullary hematopoiesis)

Children:
- "German Measles" - macular rash - starts on the face and spreads centrifugally downwards (ie only on trunk; not on limbs) fades after 3 days
- fever
- POST-AURICULAR ADENOPATHY (occipital, posterior cervical)
- arthralgias
- (-) koplik spots
- does NOT appear ill

63

Eastern Equine Encephalitis - features

Toga virus SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

64

Western Equine Encephalitis - features

Toga virus SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

65

Corona virus - clinical features

common cold, SARS

SSRNA (+) linear, enveloped

66

Influenza - clinical features

Orthomyxovirus SSRNA (-) linear, 8 seg, enveloped

HA (entry), NA (release)

genetic drift due to minor bp changes
genetic shift due to Hfr reassortment

∆s mucociliary function -> incr. risk for superimposed bacterial infections

67

vaccines for influenza

Killed (IM) or Live, attenuated (IN) vaccines

Oseltamivir and Zanamivir - both blocks NA to decrease release of progeny

68

role of surface F protein in paramyxoviruses

surface F (fusion) protein - causes respiratory epithelial cells to fuse and form multi-nucleated cells

69

Parainfluenza - clinical features

Paramyxovirus SS RNA (-) linear, surface F protein, enveloped

croup "seal-like barking"

70

RSV - clinical features; treatment (2)?

Paramyxovirus SSRNA (-) linear, surface F protein, enveloped

bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants

Ribavirin - guanosine analog
Palivizumab (mAb F protein) prevents pneumonia in preemies"

71

Measles - clinical features; treatment?

Paramyxovirus SSRNA (-) linear, surface F protein, enveloped

"3C's: Cough, Coryza (rhinitis), Conjunctivitis

macular-papular erythematous rash begins on face and migrates downwards to feet (includes limbs)
(+) koplik spots (bright red spots w. blue-white center on buccal mucosa that precedes rash by 1-2d)
very ill

Possible sequelae: SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis), encephalitis, giant cell pneumonia "

Vit A - prevent severe exfoliative dermatitis in malnourished children

72

Mumps - clinical features

Paramyxovirus SSRNA (-) linear, surface F protein, enveloped

Body parts = pom-POMS: Parotitis, Orchitis, aspetic Meningitis, Sterility

73

How does German measles and measles differ?

"German Measles"/Rubella
- macular rash - starts on the face and spreads centrifugally downwards (ie only on trunk; not on limbs) fades after 3 days
- (-) koplik spots
- does NOT appear ill
- POST-AURICULAR ADENOPATHY (occipital, posterior cervical)
- arthralgias
- fever

Measles
- macular-papular erythematous rash begins on face and migrates downwards to feet (includes limbs)
- (+) koplik spots (bright red spots w. blue-white center on buccal mucosa that precedes rash by 1-2d)
- very ill

74

Rabies - clinical features + treatment?

Rhabdovirus SSRNA (-) linear, bullet shaped virus, enveloped

common in bat, raccoon, skunk (US), dogs (worldwide)

travels to CNS via retrograde migration up nerve axons; forms Negri bodies in purkinje cells of cerebellum and hippocampus

long incubation pd. (wks-mo) before onset of sx (fever, malaise, extreme agitation, photophobia, hydrophobia, paralysis, coma -> death)

trmt: clean wound + vaccination + rabies Ig

75

Ebola - clinical features

Filovirus SS RNA (-) linear, enveloped

Marburg hemorrhagic fever - fatal

76

LCMV lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus - features

Arenavirus SSRNA (-) circular, 2 seg, enveloped

77

Lassa Fever encephalitis - features

Arenavirus SSRNA (-) circular, 2 seg, enveloped

spread via mice

78

California encephalitis

Bunyavirus SSRNA (-) circular, 3 seg, enveloped

79

Sandfly/Rift Valley Fever

Bunyavirus SSRNA (-) circular, 3 seg, enveloped

80

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

Bunyavirus SS RNA (-) circular, 3 seg, enveloped

81

Hantavirus

Bunyavirus SSRNA (-) circular, 3 seg, enveloped

hemorrhagic fever, pneumonia

82

HAV - features

PicoRNAvirus
SS (+) RNA linear icosahedral, ø enveloped

83

HBV - features

HepaDNAvirus
dsDNA (circular, incomplete), enveloped

84

HCV- features

Flavivirus
SS (+) RNA linear icosahedral, enveloped

85

HDV- features

Delta virus
SS (-) RNA, circular, enveloped

86

HEV- features

Calcivirus
SS (+) RNA linear icosahedral, ø enveloped

87

HAV
- transmission
- clinical features (Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk)
- clinical picture

Transmission: F/O

clinical features (Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk): short, ø, ø

Clinical picture: Asymptomatic (usually), Acute hepatitis, Alone

remember that it is a PicoRNAvirus
SS (+) RNA linear icosahedral, ø enveloped

88

HBV
- transmission
- clinical features (Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk)
- clinical picture

transmissioN: parenteral, sexual, maternal/fetal

Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk: long, yes, yes

DNA polymerase also has RT activity (polymerase completes the partial dsDNA -> host RNA-polymerase transcribe mRNA from it -> viral RT reverse transcribes viral RNA to DNA -> new viral particles forms and can integrate into host genome and act as an oncogene

remember that it is a HepaDNAvirus
dsDNA (circular, incomplete), enveloped

89

order at which antigens /antibodies appear in HBV?

SECES: SE = antigens; CES = antibodies

90

histological features of HBV?

acute hx: ballooning degeneration of hepatocyte and lymphocytic infiltrate

chronic hx: ground glass hepatocytes

91

HCV
- transmission
- clinical features (Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk)
- clinical picture

Transmission: IVDU, post transfusion

Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk: long, yes, yes

Features: Chronic, Cirrhosis, Carcinoma, Carrier

remember that it is a Flavivirus, SS (+) RNA linear icosahedral, enveloped

92

HDV
- transmission
- clinical features (Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk)
- clinical picture

Transmission: Parenteral, sexual, maternal/fetal transmission

Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk: short/long, yes, yes

features: defective virus - requires HBV coinfection (long) or superinfection (short, but bad prognosis)

remember that it is a Delta virus, SS (-) RNA, circular, enveloped

93

HEV
- transmission
- clinical features (Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk)
- clinical picture

transmission: F/O

Incubation pd, Carrier state, HCC risk: short, ø, ø

Features - high mortality in pregnant women
Enteric, Expectant, Epidemics (waterborne)

remember that it is a Calcivirus, SS (+) RNA linear icosahedral, ø enveloped

94

rule of thumb about non-enveloped viruses?

ø envelope = ø destruction by gut

95

cowdry type A inclusions

HSV1 - oral

96

Downey cells

HSV4 - EBV

97

Owl eye inclusions

HSV5 - CMV

98

Koilocytes

HPV

99

Negri bodies

Rhabdovirus - rabies

100

DNA viruses - all dsDNA except

parvovirus, which is ssDNA

101

DNA viruses - all linear except

papilloma, polyoma (circular, supercoiled), and hepadna- (circular, incomplete)

102

DNA viruses - all non-enveloped except

Herpes-, Hepadna-, which are enveloped

103

RNA viruses - all ss except

Reoviridae (rotavirus)

104

RNA viruses - all enveloped except

calici
hepe
Reo
picorna

(remember CHiRP on a PERCH is an easy target b/c it's not enveloped)

105

RNA viruses - all linaer except

bunya, arena, delta, which are circular

"It's not BAD to be well-ROUNDED"

106

RNA viruses - only multi-segmented ones

Reo, orthomyxo, arena, and bunya

BOAR are complicated creatures

107

RNA viruses (+) sense only

(+) stranded: HIPpy RETRO TOGA party with FLAVored CORONA and CALIfornia PICkles, and real (+) vibes


Hepevirus
RetroRNA
Togavirus
Flavivirus
Coronavirus
Calcivirus
PicoRNAvirus

108

RNA viruses (-) sense only

(-) stranded: Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication

Arenavirus
Bunya virus
Paramyxovirus
Orthomyxovirus
Filovirus
Rhabdovirus