MicroBio Q's TF CH3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in MicroBio Q's TF CH3 Deck (53):
1

In what way are bacterial and archaeal cells similar?

In cellular organization

2

How are bacterial cells that grow in irregular groups and divide in random planes are characterized as what?

Staphylococci

3

Which characteristics contribute to variation in bacterial and archaeal size and shape?

Surface area-to-volume ratio, presence of filamentous structures, and cytoskeletal elements

4

Describe the layers of bacterial cellular organization (starting internally and working outward)

Cytoplasm, plasma membrane, cell wall, and capsule

5

What is the purpose of the nucleoid in bacterial and archaeal cells?

Localization of genetic material

6

What is the function of the plasma membrane in bacterial cells?

To detect and respond to chemicals in the surrounding environment, to provide a selectively permeable barrier, and to facilitate important metabolic processes

7

How would you best describe the current understanding of the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure?

Phospholipid bilayer with peripheral and integral membrane proteins

8

Why are hopanoids important to bacterial cells?

Because they likely provide membrane stability

9

How would you best describe the bacterial cell wall?

It protects the cell from osmotic lysis, contributes to pathogenicity, and site of action of several antibiotics

10

Most gram-positive bacterial cells exhibit which characteristics?

Thick layer of peptidoglycan with teichoic acids and small periplasmic space

11

Most gram-negative bacterial cells exhibit which characteristics?

Thin layer of peptidoglycan without teichoic acids, large periplasmic space, and outer membrane

12

What is the function of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) on gram-negative bacterial cells?

To assist in evading the host immune response, to contribute to the negative charge on the cell surface, and to create a permeability barrier

13

Why do gram-positive cells stain purple?

Because ethanol shrinks the peptidoglycan pores and prevents loss of crystal violet

14

If bacterial cells treated with lysozyme are placed into a hypotonic solution, what would be the result?

The cells would likely swell and lyse

15

How do slime layers assist bacterial cells?

By facilitating motility

16

What is a unique feature of archaeal cell s-layers?

They are located just outside the plasma membrane

17

Why are archaeal membrane lipids unique?

Because they contain branched hydrocarbons derived from isoprene units, they are attached to glycerol by ether links, and they are often composed of C20 diethers and C40 tetraethers

18

What is the best way to describe the most common archaeal cell wall?

S-layer composed of glycoproteins or proteins

19

How would you best describe the function of the bacterial cytoskeleton?

It facilitates cell division, localizes proteins to certain sites in the cell, and determines cell shape

20

What is the function of ribosome in the bacterial cell?

To synthesize proteins

21

Give a true statement regarding plasmids

The replicate autonomously

22

What is the name of a bacterial cell with flagella spread evenly over the whole surface?

Peritrichous

23

What is the primary function of bacterial flagella?

Motility

24

How do archaeal flagella differ from bacterial flagella?

They are thinner than bacterial flagella, they are composed of multiple subunit types, and their flagellum is solid instead of hollow

25

What is flagellar movement driven by?

Proton-motive force

26

Which bacterial movements are type IV pili associated with?

Twitching motility

27

What allows for bacterial cells to sense a chemical gradient and respond appropriately?

Chemoreceptors

28

What is a true statement regarding bacterial endospores?

Endospores survive in nutrient limited conditions

29

Which structure of the endospore contributes to its resistance to heat and other lethal agents?

The exporium and spore coat, the inner membrane, and the core

30

What has viviparity been observed in?

Epulopscium fishelsoni

31

Pleomorphic cells are variable in shape and lack a single, characteristic form

TRUE

32

Larger cells have a greater surface area-to-volume ratio

FALSE

33

Bacterial and arachaeal cells share a common cell organization

TRUE

34

Peripheral proteins in the plasma membrane are easily removed and comprise up to 30% of membrane proteins

TRUE

35

Scientists agree upon all aspects of the fluid mosaic model

FALSE

36

At higher temperatures, bacterial phospholipids have more saturated fatty acids

TRUE

37

Hopanoids in bacterial cell membranes contribute significantly to the world's petroleum formation

TRUE

38

Peptidoglycan is common to both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial cells

TRUE

39

Periplasmic space comprises a larger portion (20-40%) of the gram-positive cell wall

FALSE

40

The component of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), lipid A, elicits an immune response by an infected host

FALSE

41

In the gram staining preocedure, iodine is used to promote dye retention

TRUE

42

Capsules are layers outside the cell wall that are well organize and not easily washed off

TRUE

43

S-layers are currently being studies for their potential use in the field of nanotechnology

TRUE

44

Archaeal membrane lipids are capable of forming pentacyclic rings

TRUE

45

Archaeal cell walls have the same chemical composition as bacterial cell walls

FALSE

46

Eukaryotic and bacterial cytoskeletons have analogous components

TRUE

47

Polyphosphate granules store phosphate in bacterial cells living in nutrient-limited conditions

TRUE

48

Archaeal and bacterial ribosomes have the same make up and size

FALSE

49

All bacteria have one circular chromosome

FALSE

50

Bacteria cells can lose plasmids spontaneously

TRUE

51

Type IV pili are involved in bacterial motility and uptake of DNA during transformation

TRUE

52

Chemotaxis is best described as random, aimless movement in bacteria and archaea

FALSE

53

Endospore position in the sporangium is valuable for identification of some bacterial species

TRUE