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Flashcards in vocab microbiology Deck (56):
1

Two unlike organisms living together with one being inside the other

Endosymbiosis

2

A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation

Hypothesis

3

The supposed development of living organisms from non living matter

Spontaneous generation

4

The lens located below the stage of a light microscope that focuses a cone of light on the sample

Condensor

5

Any staining procedure that distinguishes organisms based on their staining properties

Differential staining

6

A microscope that retains proper focus when the objectives are changed

Parfocal

7

Term describing a molecule that has that has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions

Amphipathic

8

A layer of well-organized material, not easily washed off, lying outside the cell wall

Capsule

9

The pattern of microbial behavior in which the microorganism moves toward chemical attractants and away from repellents

Chemotaxis

10

The bacterial plasma membrane plus all the structures outside of it

Cell envelope

11

Organic compounds that must be supplied in the diet for growth because they are essential cell components or precursors of such components and cannot be synthesized by the organism

Growth factors

12

A complex of DNA and proteins, primarily histones, in the cell nucleus that stains readily with basic dyes and condenses to form chromosomes during cell division

Chromatin

13

The process in which a cell takes up solutes or particles by enclosing them in vesicles pinched off from its plasma membrane

Endocytosis

14

A membrane-enclosed structure within a cell, such as mitochondrion, vacuole, or chloroplast, that performs a specific function

Organelle

15

A series of chemical reactions that occurs as part of the dark reactions of photosynthesis, in which carbon is broken away from gaseous carbon dioxide and fixed as organic carbon in compounds that are ultimately used to make sugars and starch as food

Calvin Cycle

16

A substance or preparation for killing algae

Algicide

17

An enzyme that changes their shape, or conformation, upon binding of a modulator

Allosteric Enzyme

18

An increase in number of micro organisms

Growth

19

An organism that manufacturers its own food from inorganic substances using light for energy

Phototroph

20

Any chemical agent used chiefly on inanimate objects to destroy or inhibit the growth of harmful organisms

Disinfectant

21

Microorganisms that do not require oxygen for growth but do grow better with it

Facultative anaerobe

22

Reactions that replenish depleted tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates

Anaplerotic Reactions

23

The amount of energy that must be put into a system in order to cause a chemical process to occur

Activation energy

24

The destruction of all living micororganisms

Sterilization

25

The material or substance on which an enzyme acts

Substrate

26

The rotating enzyme complex that couples ATP production to the flow of hydrogen ions

ATP Synthase

27

The process in cell metabolism by which respiratory enzymes in the mitochondria synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate during the oxidation of NADH by molecular oxygen

Oxidative phosphorylation

28

The time required for a microbial population to double in number

Generation time

29

A chemical or physical agent that causes mutation

Mutagen

30

A DNA binding protein binds near the gene and turns up the level of expression

Positive control

31

DNA copy of an RNA molecule

complementary DNA

32

A permanent heritable change in the genetic material

Mutation

33

A polymerase that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template

RNA polymerase

34

A protein coded for by a regulator gene that can bind to the operator and inhibit transcription

Repressor

35

A small molecule that stimulates the synthesis of an inducible enzyme

Inducer

36

An organism with a mutation that causes it to lose the ability to synthesize an essential nutrient

Auxotroph

37

Enzyme that uses ATP energy to unwind DNA ahead of the replication fork

Helicase

38

Technique used to synthesize large quantities of specific nucleotide sequences from small amounts of DNA

polymerase chain reaction

39

The base triplet on a tRNA that is complementary to the triplet codon on mRNA 

anti-codon

40

The RNA that is the structural and catalytic part of a ribosome

rRNA

41

The segment of DNA to which the repressor protein binds. It controls the expression of the genes adjacent to it.

Operator

42

The make identical copies of a DNA sequence

cloning

43

Obligate intracellular parasite

Virus

44

The latent form of a temperate phage that remains within the lysogen, usually integrated into the host chromosome

Prophage

45

A clear area in a lawn of host cells that result from their lysis by viruses

Plaque

46

A gene whose activity is associated with the conversion of normal cells to cancer cells

Oncogene

47

A virus life cycle that results in the lysis of the host cell

Lytic cycle

48

Existing in a person or animal from birth

Innate

49

A localized protective reaction of tissue to irritation, injury, or infection, characterized by pain, redness, swelling and sometimes loss of function

Inflammation

50

An outer membranous layer that surrounds the nucleocapsid in some viruses

Envelope

51

Any of several regulatory proteins, such as interleukins and lymphokines, that are released by cells of the immune system and act as intercellular mediators in the generation of an immune response

Cytokine

52

The process by which an antigen selects the best-fitting B Cell receptor, activating that B cell, resulting in the synthesis of antibody and clonal expansion

clonal selection

53

Of or relating to an immune response by the body against one of its own cells or tissues

Autoimmunity

54

A glycoprotein made by plasma cells (mature B cells) in response to the introduction of an antigen

antibody

55

The reversion of an animal cell to a more primitive, undifferentiated state

anaplasia

56

Any virus, bacterium, or other agent that causes disease

Pathogen