MicroBio Book Questions CH 1 Flashcards Preview

MicroBiology > MicroBio Book Questions CH 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in MicroBio Book Questions CH 1 Deck (39):
1

Organisms without a membrane-bound nucleus and without compartmentalization are called

Prokaryotes

2

Organisms with a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are called

Eukaryotes

3

Which of the following scientific advances influenced microbial classification?

(A) Use of electron microscopy to study detailed structures of microbial cells; (B) Determination of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of many microbes; and (C) Sequencing of nucleic acids and proteins from a wide variety of microbes

4

Comparison of ribosomal RNA from a variety of organisms led to which of the following classification schemes?

Three-domain

5

Which of the following characteristics best describe the Bacteria?

Cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan

6

Which of the following characteristics best describe the Archaea?

(A) Usually live in extreme environments; (B) Exhibit unusual metabolic characteristics; and (C) Plasma membrane is composed of unique lipids

7

The Domain Eukarya includes which of the following microorganisms?

Protists

8

Which of the following is a major type of protist?

(A) Algae; (B) Protozoa; and (C) Slime and water molds

9

A diverse group of microorganisms that are multicellular, form hyphae, and absorb nutrients from the environment are called

Fungi

10

Viruses require

Host cells to replicate

11

_____________ are infectious proteins that cause spongiform encephalopathies such as scrapie and "mad cow disease".

Prions

12

In the scientific method, an educated guess used to explain observations is called

A hypothesis

13

Microbiologists consider which of the following to be an important attribute of life?

Reproduction

14

The first self-replicating molecule on the primitive Earth was most likely

RNA

15

RNA was most likely the first self-replicating molecule because

(A) It can catalyze chemical reactions, (B) It can regulate gene expression; and (C) ATP, the energy currency of the cell, is composed of a ribonucleotide

16

The universal phylogenetic tree is constructed from comparisons of which of the following molecules amongst diverse organisms?

SSU rRNA

17

According to the universal phylogenetic tree,

The Eukarya and the Archaea are more closely related and evolved from a common ancestor after the Bacteria

18

The origin of eukaryotic organelles is best described by

The endosymbiotic hypothesis

19

The hydrogen hypothesis describes the evolution of which eukaryotic organelle?

Mitochondria

20

A major source of genetic diversity in bacteria is

Horizontal gene transfer

21

The traditional biological species concept applied to some eukaryotes is not valid for bacteria because

Bacteria reproduce asexually

22

A collection of Bacterial or Archaeal strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups of strains are known as

Species

23

Which of the following are important methods to microbiologists?

(A) Microscopy; (B) Culture techniques; and (C) Genomic analysis

24

_____________________ constructed simple microscopes, observed bacteria and protists, and reported his findings to the Royal Society of London.

Antony van Leeuwenhoek

25

Which of the following observations by Francesco Redi refutes the idea of spontaneous generation?

Covered pieces of meat did not produce maggots spontaneously

26

Which of the following scientists contributed to disproving spontaneous generation?

Francesco Redi

27

Which scientist linked silkworm disease with a fungus?

Agostino Bassi

28

The processes of heating liquids to destroy undesirable microbes is called

Pasteurization

29

_______________ first used phenol in surgery to prevent microorganisms from entering wounds.

Joseph Lister

30

Which of the following examples best illustrates Koch's postulates?

The suspected organisms are isolated and grown in pure culture

31

Agar is an ideal solidifying agent for growing bacteria because

(A) It is not broken down by most bacteria; (B) It is in liquid form at 100 degrees Celsius; and (C) It is in a solid form at 50 degrees Celsius

32

The first scientists to knowingly use attenuated bacteria in vaccination were

Pasteur and Roux

33

A major discovery in the field of immunology was

(A) Injection with attenuated microorganisms provided immunity; (B) Discovery of antibodies; and (C) Discovery of immune system cells

34

The discovery that soil bacteria could oxidize iron, sulfur, and ammonia to obtain energy was made by

Sergei Winogradsky

35

All the genetic information that an organism contains is called its

Genome

36

Molecules made by combining two or more different DNA molecules together are called

Recombinant DNA molecules

37

The field of microbiology that studies the spread of communicable disease, detects outbreaks, and implements appropriate control measures is called

Epidemiology

38

The field of microbiology that studies the roles of diverse microorganisms in the environment is called

Microbial ecology

39

The field of microbiology that researches new uses for microbes and was of culturing and isolating their products is called

Industrial microbiology