Flashcards in MicroBio Book Questions CH 1 Deck (39):
Organisms without a membrane-bound nucleus and without compartmentalization are called
Organisms with a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles are called
Which of the following scientific advances influenced microbial classification?
(A) Use of electron microscopy to study detailed structures of microbial cells; (B) Determination of the biochemical and physiological characteristics of many microbes; and (C) Sequencing of nucleic acids and proteins from a wide variety of microbes
Comparison of ribosomal RNA from a variety of organisms led to which of the following classification schemes?
Which of the following characteristics best describe the Bacteria?
Cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan
Which of the following characteristics best describe the Archaea?
(A) Usually live in extreme environments; (B) Exhibit unusual metabolic characteristics; and (C) Plasma membrane is composed of unique lipids
The Domain Eukarya includes which of the following microorganisms?
Which of the following is a major type of protist?
(A) Algae; (B) Protozoa; and (C) Slime and water molds
A diverse group of microorganisms that are multicellular, form hyphae, and absorb nutrients from the environment are called
Host cells to replicate
_____________ are infectious proteins that cause spongiform encephalopathies such as scrapie and "mad cow disease".
In the scientific method, an educated guess used to explain observations is called
Microbiologists consider which of the following to be an important attribute of life?
The first self-replicating molecule on the primitive Earth was most likely
RNA was most likely the first self-replicating molecule because
(A) It can catalyze chemical reactions, (B) It can regulate gene expression; and (C) ATP, the energy currency of the cell, is composed of a ribonucleotide
The universal phylogenetic tree is constructed from comparisons of which of the following molecules amongst diverse organisms?
According to the universal phylogenetic tree,
The Eukarya and the Archaea are more closely related and evolved from a common ancestor after the Bacteria
The origin of eukaryotic organelles is best described by
The endosymbiotic hypothesis
The hydrogen hypothesis describes the evolution of which eukaryotic organelle?
A major source of genetic diversity in bacteria is
Horizontal gene transfer
The traditional biological species concept applied to some eukaryotes is not valid for bacteria because
Bacteria reproduce asexually
A collection of Bacterial or Archaeal strains that share many stable properties and differ significantly from other groups of strains are known as
Which of the following are important methods to microbiologists?
(A) Microscopy; (B) Culture techniques; and (C) Genomic analysis
_____________________ constructed simple microscopes, observed bacteria and protists, and reported his findings to the Royal Society of London.
Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Which of the following observations by Francesco Redi refutes the idea of spontaneous generation?
Covered pieces of meat did not produce maggots spontaneously
Which of the following scientists contributed to disproving spontaneous generation?
Which scientist linked silkworm disease with a fungus?
The processes of heating liquids to destroy undesirable microbes is called
_______________ first used phenol in surgery to prevent microorganisms from entering wounds.
Which of the following examples best illustrates Koch's postulates?
The suspected organisms are isolated and grown in pure culture
Agar is an ideal solidifying agent for growing bacteria because
(A) It is not broken down by most bacteria; (B) It is in liquid form at 100 degrees Celsius; and (C) It is in a solid form at 50 degrees Celsius
The first scientists to knowingly use attenuated bacteria in vaccination were
Pasteur and Roux
A major discovery in the field of immunology was
(A) Injection with attenuated microorganisms provided immunity; (B) Discovery of antibodies; and (C) Discovery of immune system cells
The discovery that soil bacteria could oxidize iron, sulfur, and ammonia to obtain energy was made by
All the genetic information that an organism contains is called its
Molecules made by combining two or more different DNA molecules together are called
Recombinant DNA molecules
The field of microbiology that studies the spread of communicable disease, detects outbreaks, and implements appropriate control measures is called
The field of microbiology that studies the roles of diverse microorganisms in the environment is called