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1

What is neuroanatomy?

The study of the anatomy and organization of the central nervous system(s) of animals

2

What are 2 examples of species that exhibit radial symmetry?

a) Hydra (cnidarian)
b) Sea star (echinoderm)

3

What are 2 examples of species that exhibit bilateral symmetry?

Humans and drosophila

4

What is the reference point that distinguishes dorsal and ventral called?

Cephalic flexure

5

Describe neurons.

They convey information through electrical and chemical signals. They are the oldest and longest cells. It is the functional unit of behaviour. There is limited ability to be replaced

6

Describe glia.

They provide a support system for neurons. They have a variety of types and functions. Their presence is crucial for neurons.

7

Describe dendrite structure.

Tapered extension(s) of the cell body. Complex (branching)

8

Describe the major organelles of dendrites.

Cytoskeleton and mitochondria

9

What is the primary function of dendrites?

They are the primary site of reception

10

Describe soma structure.

1 or more processes, generally 1 axon and many dendrites

11

What are the major organelles of the soma?

Nucleus, ER and Golgi apparatus, Cytoskeleton, Mitochondria

12

What are the primary functions of the soma?

Synthesis of macromolecules and integration of electrical signals

13

Describe the structure of axons.

Single, cylindrical processes.
May have myelin.

14

What are the major organelles of the axon?

Cytoskeleton, mitochondria, and transport vesicles

15

What is the primary function of the axon?

Conduction of the action potential

16

Describe the structure of the axon terminal.

Vesicle-filled opposed to another neuron

17

What are the major organelles of the axon terminal?

Mitochondria and synaptic vesicles

18

What is the primary function of the axon terminal?

Neurotransmission

19

Which types of neurons have dendrites branching off of the axon?

Unipolar, pseudo-unipolar, and bipolar

20

Which type of neurons have dendrites branching off the cell body?

Multipolar

21

What is Golgi staining? Which chemicals does it use?

Silver staining technique for use under light microscope. Potassium dichromate and silver nitrate. Stains a limited number of cells at random

22

What is immunohistochemistry?

Localization of proteins (antigens) using antibodies to specific proteins

23

Which immunohistochemistry antibodies are used for neurons?

NeuN, MAP2, synaptophysin, PSD95

24

Which immunohistochemistryantibodies are used for astrocytes?

GFAP (Glial fibrillary acidic protein)

25

What are the two detection methods for immunohistochemistry?

Chromogen and fluorescence

26

What is used for chromogen-based detection in immunohistochemistry?

Alkaline phosphate, horseradish peroxidase

27

What is used for fluorescence-based detection in immunohistochemistry?

FTIC, TRITC, Alexa Fluors

28

How does neuron filling work?

Via injection or axonal transport
Targeted filling of neurons of interest
Take advantage of polarity and transport mechanisms within the cell

29

What are some examples for neuron filling?

Biotin derivatives, GFP, lucifer yellow, viruses (pseudo-rabies/herpes)

30

What are some methods for loading in neuron filling?

Microinjection
Whole-cell patch clamping (in-vitro)
Electroporation