Flashcards in Midterm 2 Deck (239)
What are the three major functions of the brainstem?
Conduit, cranial nerves, and integrative functions
Where is the attachment point for most cranial nerves?
Which integrative functions are the brainstem responsible for?
Cardiovascular, respiratory, general visceral sensory and motor (autonomic reflex arcs), and the reticular formation
What are the superior and inferior colliculi and important landmark for?
Where the midbrain meets the cortex
What do we look for to know that we are viewing a dorsal image of the brain?
The obex and the floor of the fourth ventricle
What are the three major divisions of the internal brainstem?
The tectum (area posterior to ventricular space), the tegmentum (area anterior to the ventricular space), and appended structures
Which structures are included in the tectum?
The midbrain (specifically, the superior and inferior colliculi)
Which structures are found in the tegmentum?
The reticular formation (contained by the pons), cranial nerves and nuclei, and spinal tracts
Which structures are included in the 'appended structures' of the brainstem?
Cerebral peduncles, basal pons, and pyramids
Which division of the cerebellum is involved in planning movements?
Which region of the brain is responsible for adjusting limb movements?
Medial hemisphere of the cerebellum
What functions are governed by the vermis?
Postural adjustments and eye movements
Which two cerebellar regions are responsible for eye movements?
Flocculus and vermis
What are the 5 main structures of the basal ganglia?
Caudate nucleus, putament, globus pallidus (GPe, GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN), and substantia nigra
Which structures make up the striatum?
Caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens
Which structures make up the lenticular nucleus?
Putamen, globus pallidus
When is the lenticular nucleus referred to as such?
During development. After development, it is split into the putamen and globus pallidus
What is the reticular formation?
A core of tissue found throughout the brainstem
What are the functions of the reticular formation?
Respiratory control, cardiovascular control, sleep/wake cycles (ascending reticular activating system), sensory modulation, reflexes (i.e., coughing)
Why do animals move more when sleeping?
Animals don't have as much of an inhibitory activity of he ARAS
Which brainstem nuclei have extremely widespread connectivity designed to modulate activity of the brain?
Locus coeruleus, substantia nigra (pars compacta), ventral tegmental area, raphe nuclei
Which neurotransmitter is utilized by the locus coeruleus?
Where is the locus coeruleus located?
Floor of 4th ventricle in rostral pons
Where does the locus coeruleus project to?
Thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and cerebral cortex (somatosensory)
What are the roles of the locus coeruleus?
Maintaining attention and vigilance
What is the main neurotransmitter in the substantia nigra pars compacta?
Where is the SNc located?
Where are the projections from the SNc?
Striatum and putamen (nigrostriatal pathway)
What is the main neurotransmitter in the ventral tegmental area?