Flashcards in Midterm 1 - Chapter 1 Deck (28):
An action the has a goal in mind and requires limb movement
What is "Motor Skill"
Motor skill has 2 parts, the quality of movement that determines the skill(act) and is distinguishable by a variety of characteristics (tasks)
How can a skill be classified? (3)
1. By the way the task is organized
2. Importance of motor and cognitive elements
3. Level of environmental predictability
How can skills/tasks be organized?
1. Discrete - Brief, 1 distinct beginning and end. (Taking a drink from a cup)
2. Serial - Multiple discrete skills strung together (Driving stick)
3. Continuous - No clear beginning or end (running)
Define what it means to be a "Motor" or "Cognitive" Element and provide an example. How would you describe most actions, motor or cognitive?
Motor: All physical. Ex weight lifting
Cognitive: All mental. Ex Chess
Most actions typically fall somewhere within a continuum of the two rather than exclusively one or the other.
What are the 2 types of environmental predictability?
Open Skill - Performed in an unpredictable environment
Closed Skill - Predictable/ stationary environment in which a skill can be pre-planned.
Characteristics of individuals that are subject to change from practice and that underlie performance.
What 2 dimensions does gentile look at when classifying skill?
1. Environmental demands
2. Action Variability
Environmental demands for gentile's system are split into what 2 components? Describe them.
1. Context Variability - Looks at variation between attempts of the action (you may speak sign language but each time you may say something different so the context of the attempt changes).
2. Regulatory Variability - Is the change in the environment around you (Going on an escalator, jogging around town)
Action Requirements for gentile's system are split into what 2 components? Describe them.
1. Object manipulation - You must manipulate an object to complete the skill (playing a flute)
2. Body Transport - You have to move your body in order to complete the skill (walking)
Who is Franklin Henry?
Father of motor skill research, from Berkley, Cal. Created Specificity Hypothesis
What are the 3 keys to Guthrie's model for distinguishing skill proficiency?
1. Maximum certainty of success, no/very little luck involved.
2. Minimum amount of energy expended (efficiency)
3. Minimum movement time (or ability to control movement time, a RB moving too fast would get crushed if he was faster than his blockers)
What is Motor Performance?
Observable production of a voluntary action or motor skill. Typically can be influenced by temporary factors such as motivation, arousal, fatigue etc.
What is Motor Learning?
Changes associated with practice or experience. Part of an internal process that determines capability for producing motor skill.
Describe the relation between Motor Learning and Motor Performance and also give the theories behind why they may be connected.
ML and MP are hard to split up because many reps of motor performance are required to gain motor learning but an individuals amount of ML is estimated by their performance. This is because of the internal state of ML, which is only demonstrated by performance. Performance can be influenced by factors like boredom which can dictate how one can evaluate the degree of learning.
2 Theories behinds these ML and MP are the learning stages and implicit learning
What is implicit learning?
Experiencing performance improvements for which you are unaware. These are tasks you learn without realizing and would have a hard time telling others how to perform/learn the task.
How many theories are there on the stages of Performance and learning and who is responsible for them?
5 different theories on P&L, authors are:
1. Fits and Posner
Describe Fits and Posner's model of P&L
1. Cognitive (Trial and Error): Thinking through a skill
2. Associative (homing in): Associate movements with outcomes
3. Autonomous(free and easy): Automatically happens involving little to no cognition.
Describe Adams Model of P&L
1. verbal-motor: talking yourself through a skill
2. Motor: Less talk more action! Feedback for can be intrinsic and/or extrinsic
Describe Gentile's model of P&L
1. Getting the idea of the movement(understanding): different ideas depending on the nature of the skill(open or closed).
2a. Fixation (goal for closed skills): With a fixed environment you can control and correct movements
2b. Diversification (goal for open skills): With an open environment you can modify movements based on the context of the situation.
Describe Newell's model of P&L
1. Coordination - Acquiring the movement pattern
2. Control - Adapting the pattern for different situations.
Within Newell's model of P&L, Bernstein asked a question what was it and what was the answer?
Q: How do we control multiple degrees of freedom that exist within our body?
A: Movement Coordination is the result of freeing and freezing Degrees of Freedom (DOF)
When an athlete chokes what is the theory behind that and what brain structure is supposedly responsible?
Internal or Implicit processes become external or explicit due to stress. Regression of the Basal Ganglia is responsible.
What is the situation based approach? What makes it up? (3)
Understanding motor performance/learning by placing emphasis on the context in which learning happens. Looks at Person, Task and Environment.
What is a Gross Motor Skill?
Primary control of movement by large muscles or proximal muscle groups
What is a fine motor skill?
Primary control of movement by small muscles or distal muscle groups.