Flashcards in Midterm 1 - Chapter 6 Deck (20):
What is the Opposite of r squared
What are the 2 approaches taken to study motor behaviour?
1. Experimental Approach
2. Differential Approach
What is the Experimental Approach? Definition and 3 points
A method Scientists use to examine factors that influence performance or behaviour of people generally.
1) It looks at a GENERAL population.
2)Assumes equivalence of groups
3) Manipulates independent variables(x) to measure dependent variables(y)
What is the Differential Approach? Definition and 2 points
A method scientists use to examine differences between people. Looks at individual differences.
1) Uses Standardized testing
2) Important for Clinicians and teachers
What is the difference between Norm Referenced testing and Criterion Referenced Testing, give examples of both.
Norm Referenced is comparing people to one another (IQ tests) where as Criterion Referenced testing is where people are compared to a set of criteria (Swimming tests). Norm Ref there is a sliding scale and you can get any grade/mark from 0-100 where as Criterion Ref you either meet the criteria or you don't (pass/fail)
What are individual differences?
stable enduring differences among individuals performances often attributable to differences in abilities
Stable, Enduring traits that for the most part are genetically determined and underlying a person's skill. Not going to be influenced by practice.
Developed as a result of practice and is based on pre-existing levels of abilities and experience level
What is the difference between skills and abilities
Abilities are genetically determined and not influenced by practice, where as skilles are developed by practice and based on one's level of abilities.
Research on individual differences is focused on two area's, what are they?
1. Underlying abilities
2. Can accurate predictions be made about a persons future performance and skill
What are 2 practical implications that can be drawn from the knowledge that we all have different levels of abilities
1. Higher abilities= higher performance, than those who would have lower abilities
2. Higher abilities = higher performance in tasks involving those abilities
What are the different theories of abilities and who presented each(3)
1. Singular Global Ability (McCloy)
2. Specificity Hypothesis (Henry)
3. Grouping of Abilities (Fleishman)
Singular Global Ability is similar to the concept of a persons IQ. For IQ we have one level of intelligence that does not change depending on type of activity, SGA presents that for Motor Abilitity, we have one level of ability that does not fluctuate between tasks. If you are a high level performer in one task it is the same for all others regardless of type of task.
Describe Specificity Hypothesis
S.H. says that there are so many different abilities that because you have high ability in one task does not mean you will in others. The amount of abilities is so diverse that there is NO transfer between tasks.
Describe Grouping of Abilities
G of A says there there are a variety of different abilities but not as many as described by Henry. This means that because the pool of abilities is smaller there will be some degree of cross over.
What is the best proof of Grouping of Abilities and who were the 2 researchers responsible (table in text book)
The study by Drowatzky and Zuccato that looked at Static vs Dynamic Balance. This disproved SGA and Specificity Hypothesis
Fleishman was responsible for which theory on ability and what 2 catagories did he separate them into?
Grouping of Abilities, he separated into:
1. Perceptual Motor Ability
2. Physical Motor Ability
What 4 abilities are associated by timing and force control?
1. Movement Rate
2. Motor Timing
3. Perceptual Timing
4. Force Control
Is initial testing the best way to judge a person's ability?
No, some people may be "late bloomers" and develop their abilities later on as they progress with practice and become experts while there are others who may peak in their abilities on the initial stages and not develop any farther. Example: Micheal Jordan getting cut @ high school basketball