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1

What are the main characteristics of Carbohydrates?

1. Multiple Carbon structure (more than 3)
2. All of the carbons are attached to oxygen
3. All of the C - O single bonds are OH
4. First and second C can have a double bond to O

2

What type of carbohydrate is table sugar?

Sucrose

3

When are the Glucose rings closed?

In water

4

What is a Schiff base?

Links all-trans-retinal and opsin. Keeps chromofer (?) in right position waiting for a single photo of light.

5

How is a Schiff base formed?

Aldehyde reacts with an amino group

6

Is cis or tran more stable conformation for carbohydrates?

Trans

7

Is cis or tran straighter conformation for carbohydrates?

Cis

8

What do you get when a glucose molecule binds to a fructose molecule?

Sucrose

9

What is The Pasteur Effect?

The conservation of glucose when oxygen is plentiful

10

Where does the Pasteur Effect not apply?

The brain (retina) and cancer cells

11

What is the mechanism for the Pasteur Effect?

Enzyme inhibition by phosphorylation of allosteric site

12

What process is the most common protein or enzyme modification?

Phosphorylation

13

What is Le Chatelier's Principle

If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration, temperature, volume, or partial pressure, then the equilibrium shifts to counteract the imposed change and a new equilibrium is established

14

What are the three mechanisms for Cataract formation in Diabetic patients?

1. Pump / Leak (sorbitol)
2. Superoxide (NADPH and Antioxidants)
3. AGE's (Aspirin, Aminoguanidine)

15

What does AGE stand for?

Advanced Glycated End-products

16

Define Amphipathic

Having a non-polar end and a polar end

17

What are the characteristics of Lipids

1. Non-polar
2. Soluble in Organic solvents
3. Most are amphipathic

18

Fatt Acids consist of a ________ with a ________ at one end

Hydrocarbon chain, carboxylic acid

19

What is significant about Arachidonic acid?

Associated with inflammation and headaches

20

Fatty acids are more stable in cis or trans formation?

cis

21

There is free rotation about C-C bonds in the fatty acid hydrocarbon, except where?

Where there is a double bond

22

Each cis double bond causes what in a fatty acid?

kink

23

How does an Ester form?

When a hydroxyl reacts with a carboxylic acid, with loss of water.

24

Glycerophospholipids

Are one of the most common constituents of cellular membranes

25

What is special about the structure of phosphitidate?

fatty acids are esterified to hydroxyls on C1 and C2. THe C3 hydroxyl is esterified to Pi.

26

Inositol is what type of molecule?

Polar head group. Important information molecule

27

What are the four important polar head groups?

1. serine
2. choline
3. ethanolamine
4. inositol

28

Phosphatidylinositol has what polar head group?

inositol

29

Phosphatidylcholine has what polar head group?

choline

30

What is important about Phosphatidylcholine?

Most common membrane lipid