Flashcards in Midterm Deck (66)
What are the main characteristics of Carbohydrates?
1. Multiple Carbon structure (more than 3)
2. All of the carbons are attached to oxygen
3. All of the C - O single bonds are OH
4. First and second C can have a double bond to O
What type of carbohydrate is table sugar?
When are the Glucose rings closed?
What is a Schiff base?
Links all-trans-retinal and opsin. Keeps chromofer (?) in right position waiting for a single photo of light.
How is a Schiff base formed?
Aldehyde reacts with an amino group
Is cis or tran more stable conformation for carbohydrates?
Is cis or tran straighter conformation for carbohydrates?
What do you get when a glucose molecule binds to a fructose molecule?
What is The Pasteur Effect?
The conservation of glucose when oxygen is plentiful
Where does the Pasteur Effect not apply?
The brain (retina) and cancer cells
What is the mechanism for the Pasteur Effect?
Enzyme inhibition by phosphorylation of allosteric site
What process is the most common protein or enzyme modification?
What is Le Chatelier's Principle
If a chemical system at equilibrium experiences a change in concentration, temperature, volume, or partial pressure, then the equilibrium shifts to counteract the imposed change and a new equilibrium is established
What are the three mechanisms for Cataract formation in Diabetic patients?
1. Pump / Leak (sorbitol)
2. Superoxide (NADPH and Antioxidants)
3. AGE's (Aspirin, Aminoguanidine)
What does AGE stand for?
Advanced Glycated End-products
Having a non-polar end and a polar end
What are the characteristics of Lipids
2. Soluble in Organic solvents
3. Most are amphipathic
Fatt Acids consist of a ________ with a ________ at one end
Hydrocarbon chain, carboxylic acid
What is significant about Arachidonic acid?
Associated with inflammation and headaches
Fatty acids are more stable in cis or trans formation?
There is free rotation about C-C bonds in the fatty acid hydrocarbon, except where?
Where there is a double bond
Each cis double bond causes what in a fatty acid?
How does an Ester form?
When a hydroxyl reacts with a carboxylic acid, with loss of water.
Are one of the most common constituents of cellular membranes
What is special about the structure of phosphitidate?
fatty acids are esterified to hydroxyls on C1 and C2. THe C3 hydroxyl is esterified to Pi.
Inositol is what type of molecule?
Polar head group. Important information molecule
What are the four important polar head groups?
Phosphatidylinositol has what polar head group?
Phosphatidylcholine has what polar head group?