Midterm I - Miscellaneous Photos & Info Flashcards Preview

Parasitology > Midterm I - Miscellaneous Photos & Info > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm I - Miscellaneous Photos & Info Deck (220)
Loading flashcards...
1

Trypanosoma sp.: Trypomastigotes

Blood smear

2

Trypanosoma equiperdum: Trypomastigotes

3

Trypomastigote in the blood

4

Trypanosoma sp.: Trypomastigote

Fish blood

5

Leishmania sp.: Promastigotes

6

Leishmania sp.: Promastigotes

Extracellular forms

7

Leishmania sp.: Amastigotes

Divided & intracellular - Only in macrophages

8

Giardia sp.: Trophozoite

Containing 2 nuclei

9

Giardia sp.: Trophozoites

10

AfricanTrypanosoma sp.: life cycle

11

Trypanosoma sp.: Form type in the vertebrate host tissue

Amastigotes

12

Trypanosoma sp.: Form type(s) in insects

  • Promastigote
  • Epimastigote

13

Trypanosoma sp.: Form type in the vertebrate host's blood

Trypomastigote

"Metacyclic form"

14

Trypanosoma sp.: Symptoms

  • Genital & abdominal oedema
  • Cachexia

15

African Trypanosoma sp. "Salivaria": Vector

Tsetse fly

Males & females

16

Trypanosoma equiperdum: Life cycle

17

Trypanosoma cruzi: Life cycle

18

Leishmania sp.: Life cycle

Passed on by the saliva (not faeces)

19

Leishmania sp.: Form type In vertebrates

Amastigotes

20

Leishmania sp.: Form type In insects

Promastigotes

21

Leishmania sp.: Vector

Female sand fly

22

Leishmania tropica: Pathological form

Cutaneous form (skin)

23

Leishmania braziliensis: Pathological form

Mucocutaneous form (oral & nasal cavity)

24

Leishmania donovani: Pathological form

Visceral form (liver, spleen etc.)

25

Leishmania infantum: Pathological form

Visceral & cutaneous form

26

Leishmania chagasi: Pathological form

Visceral & cutaneous form

27

Giardia sp.: Life cycle

Spreading by cysts

28

Giardia sp.: Cysts

Giemsa stain not good - Cysts appear empty

29

Giardia sp.: Cysts

Faecal smear, Poor staining - Nuclei of cysts cannot be seen

30

Giardia sp.: Cysts

Faecal smear, poor staining - Nuclei of cysts cannot be seen

31

Giardia sp.: Cysts

Floatation method - not good, empty cysts

32

Trichomonadida sp.: Life cycle

33

Trichomonas species are grouped by...

The number of anterior flagella they have

34

Trichomonas foetus

In cattle

35

Trichomonas gallinae

In poultry

36

Trichomonas sp.: Trophozoites

37

Trichomonas sp.: Trophozoites

38

Trichomonas sp.: Trophozoite

39

Trichomonas sp.: Trophozoites

Broth culture

40

Trichomonas gallinae: Necropsy specimen

41

Trichomonas gallinae: Liver necrosis

42

Histomonas sp.: Life cycle

43

Histomonas sp.: Susceptible species

  • Turkey
  • Partridge
  • Quail
  • Guinea fowl
  • (Chicken)

44

Histomonas sp.: Forms

45

Histomonas sp.: Necropsy findings

46

Histomonas meleagridis: Trophozoite

Liver, PAS Stain

 

47

Histomonas sp.: Trophozoite

48

Histomonas meleagirdis: Black head disease

Caused by cyanosis, only becomes black post mortem

49

Generalised histomosis

50

Histomonas meleagirdis: Infection of the caeca of a turkey

51

Eimeria sp.: Life cycle

52

Eimeria sp.: Summarise the zoites

Sporozoites & merozoites

  • Unicellular forms
  • Asexual form in all apicomplexan parasites
  • Lunar shaped

53

Apicomplexan sporozoites & merozoites

Giemsa stain

54

Apicomplexan parasite: Sporozoites & merozoites

55

Apicomplexan parasite: Sporozoites & merozoites

56

Apicomplexan parasite: Sporozoites & merozoites

57

Apicomplexan parasite: Sporozoites & merozoites

58

Eimeria sp.: Trophozoite

59

Schizonts

Filled with trophozoites or merozoites

60

Intracellular schizont

61

Schizonts: Filled with trophozoites or merozoites

62

Schizonts: Full of trophozoites or merozoites

63

Schizonts filled with trophozoites or merozoites

Notice the nucleus pressed to the side

64

Schizont with other staining

Zoites aren't visible due to staining

65

Eimeria sp. infection

66

Eimeria sp.: Schizont

Zoites can't be seen inside

67

Eimeria sp.: Merozoites

68

Eimeria sp.: Microgamonts (male)

69

Eimeria sp.: Macrogamonts (female)

70

Schizogony

71

Gametogony

72

Gametogony

73

Schizogony

74

Eimeria sp.: Gamonts

Amongst chicken RBCs

75

Eimeria sp.: Macrogamonts (female)

Purple appearance

76

Eimeria sp. infection: Normal chicken RBC

77

Eimeria sp.: Empty oocysts

78

Eimeria sp.: Empty oocyst

79

Eimeria sp.: Macrogamonts

80

Eimeria sp.: Ripened oocyst

81

Gamonts

82

Nuclei of nurse cells

83

Eimeria sp.: Oocysts shedding into the lumen

84

Eimeria sp.: Oocysts enter the gut lumen

85

What is significant about the staining of unsporolated oocysts?

They cannot be stained with standard histological stains

86

Eimeria sp.: Unsporolated oocysts

Contains a zygote

87

Eimeria sp.: Unsporolated oocysts

Contains a zygote

88

Eimeria sp.: Unsporulated oocysts

89

Eimeria sp.: Oocysts

Giemsa stain

90

Eimeria sp.: Oocysts

Iodine stain

91

Eimeria sp.: Oocysts

Iodine stain

92

Eimeria sp.: Oocysts

Faecal smear, Kinyoun stain

93

Eimeria sp.: Oocysts

Faecal smear, Kinyoun stain

94

Sporolated oocysts can not be detected...

In fresh samples

95

Eimeria sp.: Sporulated oocyst

Each contains 4 sporocysts (with 2 sporozoites each)

96

Eimeria sp.: Sporulated oocyst

Each contains 4 sporocysts (with 2 sporozoites each)

97

Eimeria sp.: Sporulated oocyst

Each contains 4 sporocysts (with 2 sporozoites each)

98

How are microscopic investigation of coccidia in birds carried out?

  • Mucosal & faecal smear examination
    • Zoites, gamonts & oocysts
  • Tissue section examination
    • Schizonts & gamonts

99

How can we recognise the different stages of coccidiosis?

By looking at the tissue condition

E.g if the epithelium is intact or not

100

Avian coccidiosis: Trophozoites

Note the epithelium is intact: Development stage is therefore trophozoite

101

Avian coccidiosis: Trophozoites becoming schizonts

Note the epithelium being destroyed

102

Avian coccidiosis: Schizogony & new generations of trophozoites

Note the epithelium being destroyed

103

Avian coccidiosis: Gametogony

104

Avian coccidiosis: Younger oocysts

Note the empty space around them

105

Eimeria acervulina: Necropsy specimen

Characterised by white foci in the duodenum & jejunum

106

Eimeria acervulina

Epithelial cells infected with gamonts

107

Eimeria tenella

108

Eimeria necatrix

109

Eimeria maxima

110

Eimeria acervulina

111

Eimeria mitis

112

Eimeria acervulina

Epithelial cells infected with gamonts → Loss of epithelial cells

113

Eimeria acervulina

Epithelial cells infected with gamonts → Loss of epithelial cells

114

Eimeria acervulina

Macrogamonts & oocysts in the destroyed epithelium of duodenum

115

Eimeria maxima

Characterised by "Salt and pepper" appearance in the intestine

116

Eimeria maxima

Characterised by "Salt and pepper" appearance in the intestine

117

Eimeria maxima: Gamont

118

Eimeria maxima: Schizonts

119

Eimeria necatrix

  • Haemorrage of the middle third of the intestine

120

Eimeria necatrix

  • Haemorrage of the middle third of the intestine

121

Eimeria necatrix: Gamonts

122

Eimeria tenella

  • Enlarged, bloody caecum

123

Eimeria tenella

  • Enlarged, bloody caecum

124

Eimeria tenella

  • Enlarged, bloody caecum

125

Eimeria tenella infection

  • Enlarged, bloody caecum

126

Eimeria tenella infection: Schizogony

127

Eimeria tenella infection

  • Enlarged, bloody caecum

128

Eimeria brunetti infection

  • Large intestine - Bloody content

129

Eimeria anseris infection

  • Blood, ulceration, dark dots & inflammation in the gut

130

Eimeria anseris infection

  • Blood, ulceration, dark dots & inflammation in the gut

131

Renal coccidiosis of geese is caused by which species?

Eimeria truncata

132

Eimeria truncata infection

  • White lines on kidneys
  • Red spots inside tubules

133

Eimeria truncata infection

  • White lines on kidneys
  • Red spots inside tubules

134

Eimeria truncata infection: Gamonts

​Note the renal glomerulus seen in the kidney sample

135

Eimeria truncata infection: Gamonts

​Note the renal tubules seen in the kidney sample

136

Which two types of development are possible in the life cycle of bovine coccidiosis?

  1. With small schizonts (meronts)
  2. With large macroschizonts (globidia) (usually the first generation)

137

Sheep coccidiosis: Globidia in the intestine

138

Sheep coccidiosis: Globidia inside the intestine

139

Goat coccidiosis

Globidia inside the intestine

140

Large intestine: Ruminant

Gamonts seen visible with the naked eye (white)

141

Coccidiosis of calf: Oocyst in the jejunum

Surrounded by RBCs (difference to chicken)

142

E. zuernii characteristics of faeces

Many schizonts & merozoites are formed →

  • Bloody stools appear before oocyst excretion

143

E. bovis characteristics of faeces

Many gamonts are formed →

  • Oocysts can be found in the bloody faeces

 

144

Give the forms of rabbit coccidiosis infection

  1. Hepatic
  2. Intestinal

Can sometimes be mixed

145

E. stiedai

Rabbit coccidiosis of bile ducts

Can cause:

  • Thickening of wall of duct
  • Dilation of lumen
  • Compression of liver tissue
  • Cirrhosis

146

Eimeria stiedai infection (liver)

  • Oocyst

 

147

Eimeria stiedai infection (liver)

  • Gamonts

 

148

Eimeria stiedai: Biliary hyperplasia

Proliferation is characteristic of this parasite

149

Eimeria stiedai (biliary)

  • Gamonts

150

Biliary coccidiosis of liver (E. stiedai)

151

What may be seen in the floatation technique of E. stiedai?

Oocysts may be yellow due to the bile

152

Eimeria stiedai infection: Rabbit liver 

with small nodules

153

Eimeria coccidiosis: Intestine of a rabbit

154

Eimeria stiedai infection: Liver

155

Eimeria stiedai infection: Oocysts

156

Eimeria stiedai infection

157

Give the parasites of rabbit coccidiosis found in the large intestine

  • E. flavescens
  • E. piriformis
  • E. coecicola

158

Intestinal coccidiosis in rabbit gut

Darker than the surrounding RBCs

159

Isosporosis: Summary

Coccidial infection of carnivores & omnivores

160

Isosporosis: Summarise sporulated oocysts

Each contains 2 sporocysts (containing 4 sporozoites)

161

Isospora canis infection: Oocyst

ZN stain

162

Prolapse of cattle rectum

  • Detection of unsporulated oocyst by floatation
  • E. bovis

163

Oocysts of E. bovis (larger) & E. zuernii (smaller)

164

Give the types of Cryptosporidiosis

  • Thin wall (requires oxygen)
  • Thick wall

165

Cryptosporidiosis: Summarise

  • Only found on the surface of the cell
  • IC parasite, but extracytoplasmic

166

Cryptosporidiosis: Life cycle

167

Cryptosporidiosis infection

Note the parasite isn't inside the cell

168

Cryptosporidium baileyi infection: 2 oocyst types

Red = Thick wall; White = Thin wall

Kinyoun & ZN staining

169

Cryptosporidium baileyi infection: 2 oocyst types

Red = Thick wall; White = Thin wall

Kinyoun & ZN staining

170

Cryptosporidium destroyed part of the jejunum (calf)

171

Toxoplasmosis: Life cycle

172

Toxoplasmosis: Forms

  • Tachyzoites
  • Bradyzoites
  • Sporozoites

173

Toxoplasmosis: In cells, trophozoites & cysts can be identified by their...

Lack of wall

174

Toxoplasma cyst (in brain)

175

Toxoplasma cyst (brain(

176

Toxoplasma cyst (Brain)

177

Besnoitiosis (Besnoitia besnoiti): Clinical signs

  • Subcut. connective tissue → Elephant skin
  • Lesions on the sclera

 

178

Besnoitiosis: Cysts surrounded by connective tissue

Note the cysts have an 'empty' border

179

Besnoitiosis: Cysts surrounded by connective tissue

Note the cysts have an 'empty' border

180

Besnoitiosis: Cysts surrounded by connective tissue

Note the cysts have an 'empty' border

181

Sarcocystiosis: Life cycle

Note that Sarcocystis species use host macrophages for their lifecycle

182

Sarcocystis oocyst contains how many developed sporocysts?

2

Similar to isospora

183

Sarcocystosis of a bird

White cysts on the muscle

184

Sarcocystis suihominis: Cyst

185

Sarcocystosis: Cyst

186

Sarcocystosis: Cyst cross section (with a wall)

In skeletal muscle

187

Sarcocystosis: Cyst cross section (with a wall)

188

Sarcocystosis: Cyst cross section (with a wall)

In skeletal muscle

189

Sarcocystosis: Cyst cross section (with a wall)

In skeletal muscle

190

Sarcocystis tenella infection: Cyst

Oesophagus of sheep

Really large

191

Sarcocystis tenella infection: Cyst

Oesophagus of sheep

The free zoites can be seen

192

Sarcocystis rileyi infection

  • Cysts in mallard muscle

193

Sarcocystis rileyi infection: Muscle cysts

194

Sarcocystis tenella infection: Cysts in oesophagus (sheep)

195

Sarcocystis tenella infection: Cysts in oesophagus (sheep)

196

Sarcosporidium sp.: Mallard (intermediate host)

197

How is Hepatozoonosis of dog diagnosed?

Presence of gamonts in the neutrophil granulocytes or monocytes

198

Hepatozoonosis of dog: Gamont inside neutrophil

199

Hepatozoonosis of dog: Life cycle

200

Hepatozoonosis of dog: Gamont

Spleen smear

201

Hepatozoonosis of dog: Gamont

Spleen smear

202

Hepatozoonosis of dog: Gamonts

203

When examining for babesia, you cannot be sure of a diagnosis if the RBC contains...

Only one white speck - 2 are needed to be sure

204

When sampling babesia, where in the sample would they be found in:

  1. Smear
  2. Centrifuged blood sample

  1. Smear: At the end of the smear
  2. Blood sample: Buffy coat layer

205

Babesia in peripheral blood

Unconfirmed as there is only one white speck in each

206

Babesia in peripheral blood: 2 merozoites in RBCs

Confirmed: As there are 2 white specks present

207

Babesiosis

Confirmed: As there are 2 specks

208

Babesia in a RBC

209

Babesiosis: RBCs with 2 merozoites

Confirmed: because there are 2 white specks

210

Babesiosis in the spleen

Brown appearance

211

Dog babesiosis: Clinical signs

  • Enlarged Ln.
  • Yellow mucosa
  • Dark orange urine

212

Babesia canis

213

Theileriosis: Schizogony occurs in...

WBCs & RBCs

214

Theileriosis: Koch's bodies (Macroschizonts)

215

Theleriosis: Merozoites in RBCs

216

Theleriosis: Merozoites in RBCs

217

Encephalitozoon cuniculi infection: Tissue reactions caused by Microsporidia

Brain tissue

218

Encephalitozoonosis: Meronts & schizonts

Brain tissue

219

Encephalitozoonosis: Meronts & schizonts

Brain tissue

220

Encephalitozoon cunuculi infection: Nephritis & CT proliferation

Kidney tissue