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A Level Food Technology > MINERALS > Flashcards

Flashcards in MINERALS Deck (29):
1

Function of calcium

vitamin D helps absorb

Works with phosphorus - make strong bones

Helps with blood clotting

Helps with nerve/muscle function h

2

Sources of calcium

Dairy

Fortified in bread

Oily fish

Green leafy veg

Citrus fruits

Seeds/ nuts

3

Effects of deficiency of calcium

Poor bone structure

Peak bone mass will not be reached - when bones reach hardest point in adolescence

Babies bones not form correctly

Blood will not clot correctly

4

Effects of excess of calcium
(Supplements)

Stomach pain

Diarrhoea

Constipation

5

Functions of phosphorous

Works with calcium for healthy bones/teeth

Helps with muscle function

6

Sources of phosphorus

Animal sources

Nuts

7

Effects of deficiency of phosphorous

Tiredness

depression

8

Function of iron

Needed for haemoglobin (red coloured protein in red blood cells attached to oxygen and transports it around the body)

Vitamin C held absorb it

Prevents iron deficiency

9

Sources of iron

Red meat/ kidneys/ liver

Egg yolk

Green leafy veg

Fortified bread/cereals



10

Effects of deficiency of iron

Anaemia (lack of red blood cells -> lack of oxygen -> tiredness)

Pale complexion

Weak finger nails



11

Effects of excess of iron

Stomach pains

Nausea

Vomiting

Constipation

12

Function of sodium

Maintaining water balance

Nerve transmissions

13

Sources of sodium

Cheese

Smoked meats

Processed foods

Salt

14

Effects of deficiency of sodium

Exercising in hot conditions can cause muscle cramps

15

Effects of excess of sodium

Raise blood pressure

Damage kidneys

Fluid retention -> heart works harder -> increase risk of heart failure

16

Function of chloride

Balance water fluids

17

Source of chloride

Salt

Seaweed

Tomatoes

lettuce

celery

18

Effects of deficiency of chloride

Hypochloremia

19

Effects of excess of chloride

Increase in blood pressure

Build up of fluid

20

Function of iodine

Make thyroid hormones in thyroid glands - controls metabolic rate

21

Sources of iodine

Seafood

Dairy

Plants grown in iodine rich soil

22

Effects of deficiency of iodine

Tiredness

Weight gain

Thyroid gland swells ups -> goitre

23

Function of zinc

Help with digestion

Aids protein building in body

Sperm production

24

Sources of zinc
(Needed in small amounts)

Meat

Shellfish

Dairy

Bread/cereals

25

Effects of deficiency of zinc

Slow growth in adolescents

Hair loss

Diarrhoea

Low fertility in men

26

Effects of excess of zinc
(Supplements)

Reduce amount of copper -> anaemia

27

Function of water

Transports nutrients/ oxygen/ hormones/ enzymes

Helps get rid of waste products

Regulates body temperature - keep at 37 degrees

Found in all body fluids (blood/ saliva)

28

Sources of water

Tap/bottle/drinks

Food

29

How water soluble vitamins can be retained when cooking foods

Excessive peeling can reduce nutrients at skins surface

Wash vegetables and use skin

Use liquid in gravy

Use alternative methods - grilling/ steaming

Eat raw