NEEDS OF INDIVIDUAL Flashcards Preview

A Level Food Technology > NEEDS OF INDIVIDUAL > Flashcards

Flashcards in NEEDS OF INDIVIDUAL Deck (23):

Lifestages - toddlers

Small portions

Starchy foods - energy

Nicely presented - appealing

Variety = variety of nutrients - growth/ development
-> encourages good eating habits

Limit sugary/ salty/ fatty snacks

Need some fat/ fat for energy/ fullness/ digestion


Lifestages - children (5-10)

Balanced diet (eat well plate)

Daily exercise

High energy intake - growth/development at fast rate

Need iron/ calcium and vitamin D/ vitamins/ minerals/ protein/ carbs/ vitamin A
-> keeps them healthy

Don’t overfeed

Limit sugar/ fatty foods - prevents obesity


Lifestages - teenagers (11-19)

Need more food that adults - higher release of energy (growth/ activity levels)

More iron - girls

More calcium - reach peak bone mass

More vitamins/ minerals

Avoidance of snacks high in fat/ sugar

Less snacking - 3 meals a day

1000-1200 calories a day


Lifestages - adults (20-65)

Energy balance

Limited activity levels/ growth - less energy needed

Balanced diet - fibre/ starch/ vitamins
-> correct body functioning

Job determines calorie intake
Office - limited
Builder - needs more due to higher activity levels
Sports person - special diet/ more calories


Lifestages - elderly (65-100)

Less energy foods (fats/ carbs) - less active

Enough protein - cells repair

Enough iron/ calcium/ vitamin D - prevent osteoporosis

Enough fluids/ fibre - prevent constipation


Lifestages - pregnancy/ lactating

More protein - growth of baby

More food (200 calories) - more energy

Calcium - to form strong bones

Vitamin D - absorb calcium

Iron - forms haemoglobin to carry oxygen and helps store iron in baby as iron not given in milk

Vitamin C - absorption of iron

Not too much vitamin A - birth defects

B12 - formation of neural tube

Fibre prevents constipation due to hormones released

Folic acid - growth of nerves (first trimester) and reduces risk of Spina bifida


Lacto-ovo vegetarians

Can’t eat fish/ meat/ poultry

Get essential amino acids through protein complementation of LBV sources

Can eat dairy products - HBV sources (high sat)

Vitamins/ minerals through fruit and veg - insoluble NSP compromise uptake of iron and calcium

Iron comes in ferric form (plants) and haem version (meat) and ferric less available - less iron so need twice as much iron

Health benefits - lower obesity/ heart disease/ blood pressure/ diabetes/ cancers



Don’t eat dairy products/ eggs
-> LBV complementation
HBV soya products (tofu)
Calcium/ vitamin D should be obtained from other sources - fortified soya/ calcium tofu/ fortified brown and white bread (by law)

Ferric iron - pulses/ wholemeal/ fortified cereal/ dark leafy veg/

B12 - fortified soya drinks and marmite

Base meals on starchy foods


What is an allergen

Substances that causes an allergic reaction
Must be includes on packaging - eggs/ fish/ nuts/ celery


What is an allergy

Immune response to a substance (food/ pollen/ fur/ dust) which had become hypersensitive

Person must avoid food - reaction will occur

Caused by immune system


What is an intolerance

Inability to eat food without an adverse effect

More common that allergy

Not caused by immune system

Coeliac/ lactose



Vegetarian diet desirable

Moderation in all foods

Fasting required by monks



No beef

All other meats restricted/ avoided

Alcohol avoided

Fasting days

No cheese with rennet

Sometimes fish eaten - fruit of the sea



Pork/ certain birds forbidden
No gelatine

Dairy products must not contain animal enzymes

Alcohol forbidden

Coffee/ tea avoided

Fasting at specific periods - Ramadan to teach self discipline and think of poor people
- based on lunar calendar
- Eid celebrates end of Ramadan

Halal - all animal should be alive and healthy at time of killing
- must be killed by Muslim with cut to throat while prayer read
- all blood is drained

Haram - unlawful



Eat kosher food - blood drains

Eat meat from animals that chew the cud/ split or cloven hooves (sheeps and cows)

Fish that have scales and fins

Pork/ shellfish forbidden

Meat and dairy products in same meal forbidden

Leavened food (yeast products) restricted

Fasting practiced - Passover


Coeliac disease

Intolerance to protein gluten
Wheat/ barley/ oats/ rye

Small intestines damaged by the gluten

Damage can’t be reversed - life long

Weight loss
Lack of energy
Diarrhoea - damaged intestines can’t absorb enough food
Poor growth in children - insufficient nutrients absorbed (can lead to anaemia)

Products are more expensive (takes more time and special ingredients)
Rice flour
Coconut flour


Type 2 diabetes

Blood sugar levels controlled by insulin released from pancreas

Consumption of high sugar foods cause pancreas to stop releasing insulin

People overweight/ obese more at risk of developing

Low levels of glucose - hypoglycaemia
High levels of glucose - hyperglycaemia
Glucose that stays in blood and restricts blood flow - infection

Type 2 diabetes can be controlled through food eating habits based on starchy carbs
Cut down on sugary foods and use sugar substitutes
Canned fruit in juice not syrup
Lean meat
Avoid hidden sugars in other names


Coronary heart disease

Arteries become blocked and blood can’t flow properly to the heart

Caused by high levels of cholesterol (fatty substance made in the liver)

Cholesterol attaches to lipoproteins and carried in blood
Excess Saturated fats - low density lipoproteins (deposited on walls of artery - bad cholesterol)
Excess unsaturated fats - high density lipoproteins (not deposited - good cholesterol)

High blood pressure can strain arteries
Obesity puts strain on heart
Smoking makes blood stickier - doesn’t flow properly

Reduce by eating fruit and veg/ exercising/ stop smoking/ grilling instead of frying/ reduce salt


Causes of Obesity

Excess energy/ protein/ oil/ saturated fat

Little exercise

Consume more calories than burned

Person considered obese if above 20% of maximum healthy weight for persons height


Nut allergy

Skin rash
Eyes itch
Runny nose
Face swells
Coughing/ wheezing

Extreme reaction - anaphylactic shock
Throats swells and can’t breathe

Need epipen to give adrenaline to reduce swelling


Lactose intolerance

Allergic to sugar in milk - lactose

Can’t digest sugar as lack enzyme in small intestine

Sugar passes to large intestine - bloating/ wind/ diarrhoea/ nausea

Large range of lacto- free products
Almond milk


Dental caries

Harmful oral bacteria feed on sugars to create acids destroying enamel

Cavities bacterial infection created by acids causing holes in teeth which can progress to pain

Tooth decay caused by extrinsic sugars


Reduce tooth decay

Lower monosaccharide intake
Sugar replacers - stevia/ sugar

Nutritional combination of vitamin D and calcium to strengthen teeth

Keep acid levels low to reduce impact on enamel
Phosphorus neutralises acids