VITAMINS Flashcards Preview

A Level Food Technology > VITAMINS > Flashcards

Flashcards in VITAMINS Deck (46):
1

What's the difference between water and fat soluble vitamins?

Fat soluble vitamins can be stored in the body but water soluble vitamins can't (require daily)

2

Water soluble vitamins

Vitamin B (Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Folic Acid, Cobalamin)

Vitamin C

3

Fat soluble vitamins

Vitamin A (retinol and carotene)

Vitamin D (calciferol)

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

4

Name of B1

Thiamin

5

Function of B1

Release of energy from carbs

Helps nerves/growth of body

6

Sources of B1

Cereals

Yeast

Animal sources

Seeds/nuts/beans

7

Effects of deficiency of B1

Slow growth / development

Muscle wastage

8

Name of B2

Riboflavin

9

Function of B2

Release energy from carbs

Helps growth

Keeps skin healthy

10

Sources of B2

Liver/kidneys

Egg

Milk

Green veg

11

Effects of deficiency of B2

Dry skin

Poor growth

12

Name of B3

Niacin

13

Function of B3

Release energy from carbs

Healthy skin/nerves

Lowers levels of fat in blood

14

Sources of B3

Animal sources

Cereals/grains

Pulses

15

Effects of deficiency of B3

Pellagra (diarrhoea -> dermatitis -> dementia)

16

Effects of excess of B3
(Only if excess supplements)

Skin flushes

Liver damage

17

Name for B9

Folic acid

18

Function of B9

Process of protein

Formation of DNA in body cells (red blood cells)

Prevents neural tube defects in pregnancy (spina bifida)

19

Sources of B9

Liver/kidneys

Wholegrains

Pulses

Dark leafy veg

20

Effects of deficiency of B9

Tiredness

Anaemia

Spina bifida

21

Effects of excess in B9

Disguise B12 deficiency

22

Name of B12

Robalamin

23

Function of B12

Forms protective coating around nerve cells

Production of new cells

24

Sources of B12

Animal products

Supplements (vegans)

25

Effects of deficiency of B12

Tiredness

Anaemia

Muscle weakness

Depression

Memory problems

26

Effects of methods of cooking of B vitamins

Destroyed by cooking in water - nutrients leached so water is used to make gravy/sauce

Leaching reduced by steaming

27

Name of vitamin C

Ascorbic acid

29

Function of vitamin C

Helps absorption of iron

Produces collagen - connective tissue in meat to help bind cells

Antioxidant - protects body against harmful chemicals

30

Sources of vitamin C

Citrus fruits

Blackcurrants

Kiwi

Tomatoes

Green leafy veg

31

Effects of deficiency of vitamin C

Anaemia - slight

Scurvy - severe (tiredness/bleeding gums)

32

Effects of excess of B12
(Normally excreted, excess of supplements)

Nausea/diarrhoea

33

Effects of heat on vitamin C

Destroyed by exposure to heat/water (leaching)

34

Effects of methods of cooking of vitamin C

Should be served as fresh as possible

Steaming best (reduces leaching)

35

Names for vitamin A

Retinol (animal sources)

Carotene (plant sources)

36

Function of vitamin A

Effects eyesight - supplies retina with substances to see in dim light

Keeps throat/digestive system/lungs moist

Antioxidant - protects body against harmful chemicals

37

Sources of retinol
(vitamin A - animal sources)

Dairy products

Oily fish

Liver/pâté

38

Sources of carotene
(Vitamin A - plant sources)

Red/orange fruit
(Carrots/ apricots/ peppers/ tomatoes)

Green leafy veg

39

Effects of deficiency of vitamin A

Night blindness (can't see in dim light)

Lack of immunity

Poor skin quality

40

Effects of excess of vitamin A

Poisonous - builds up in liver

Pregnant women should avoid too much retinol (birth defects)

41

Effects of heat/cooking on vitamin A

Not destroyed

42

Name for vitamin D

Calciferol

43

Function of vitamin D

Controls the amount of calcium absorbed from food

Helps develop strong bones/teeth

44

Sources of vitamin D

Dairy

Eggs

Oily fish

Fortified in margarine

Sunlight - stored in liver

45

Effects of deficiency of vitamin D

Bones/teeth with weaken

Rickets (bones bend in children)
Osteomalacia (adults)
Osteoporosis (old people brittle bones)

46

Effects of excess of vitamin D
(Supplements)

Excess stored in kidneys - damage

Encourage calcium to be removed - weakens bones

47

Effects of heat/cooking on vitamin D

Not destroyed