Misc Neuro/Mental Flashcards Preview

Revision Qs > Misc Neuro/Mental > Flashcards

Flashcards in Misc Neuro/Mental Deck (63):
1

What law suggests that memories are lost from most recent to furthest back in dementia?

Ribot's law

2

What is astereognosis?

Inability to recognise familiar objects by touch alone

3

What is tactile agnosia?

Not able to identify stuff drawn on hand

4

3 areas of frontal lobe function?

Motor
Speech (Brocas)
Prefrontal area - personality, judgment, abstract thought

5

What is frontal lobe syndrome?

Disinhibition, facetious humour, apathy, distractibility, perseveration, urinary incontinence

6

2 temporal lobe functions?

Memory (hippocampus)
Speech (Wernickes) - deficit in which results in fluent aphasia

7

3 parietal lobe things?

Tactile sensation
Visual and auditory sensation
Integration, planning and sequencing

8

What will a non-dominant parietal lobe lesion yield?

Dressing apraxia
Sided neglect of dominant side (usually L)
Problems with visuospatial awareness
Anasagnosia
Autotopagnosia

9

What does a dominant parietal lobe lesion yield?

Can't tell L from R
Literacy and numeracy trouble

10

What is anasagnosia?

Failure to recognise ones own disability, typical of parietal lobe lesions

11

What is autotopagnosia?

Misidentification of ones own body parts

12

Non-epileptic tendencies of TLE?

Rf for schizophrenia
Explosive aggressiveness
Reduced libido

13

What is Pick's disease?

A cause of Frontotemporal dementia syndrome characterised by early personality and behaviour change with language difficulty (finding words) and late memory change

14

What histological findings characterise Picks disease?

Tau inclusion bodies conforming to silver stain aggregations

15

3 defining characteristics of a learning disability?

Intellectual deficit (IQ 70 or less)
Social or adaptive dysfunction
Onset in developmental period (thus excluding dementia, head injury)

16

IQ definitions of varying learning disability severity?

Mild = 50-70
Moderate = 35-50
Severe = 20-35
Profound = less than 20

17

What is fragile X syndrome?

Inherited (X linked) disorder causing learning difficulties, behavioural and concentration problems, hyperactivity and avoidance of eye contact

18

Physical features of fragile X?

Large head with long prominent ears
Lax joints, mitral valve prolapse, scoliosis, flat feet

19

What blood parameter doesn't need to be checked for lithium therapy?

LFTs

20

4 types of EPSEs?

Acute dystonic reaction
Parkinsonisms
Akathisia
Tardive dyskinesia

21

Triad of normal pressure hydrocephalus?

Gait disturbance (due to affect on sacral nerves) +/- pyramidal signs
Urinary +/- bowel incontinence for same reason
Slowly progressive, reversible dementia

22

3 common causes of communicating hydrocephalus?

Infarct of arachnoid granulations
SAH
Meningitis

23

Signs of hydrocephalus in kids?

Acute signs of raised ICP
Chronic FTT, developmental delay
Dilated scalp veins and tense fontanelles
Hypertonia
'Setting sun' sign on eyes

24

Chronic signs of adulthood hydrocephalus?

Increasing head size
Gait spasticity and unsteadiness
Impaired upward gaze (neck pain)
6th nerve palsy
Cognitive decline

25

What is pharmacokinetics?

What the body does to the drug - absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion

26

What is pharmacodynamics?

What the drug does to the body

27

What term refers to what the body does to the drug?

Pharmacokinetics

28

What term refers to the effect a drug has on the body?

Pharmacodynamics

29

3 factors affecting depression diagnosis in other cultures?

Underdetection
Stigma and reluctance to seek help
Alternate, particularly somatic presentations

30

What is affective blunting?

The objective loss of emotional reactivity

31

What is loss of affect?

Subjective feeling of ability to 'feel'

32

What is catalepsy?

Like waxy flexibility but no resistance (cross between waxy flexibility and cataplexy)

33

What is cataplexy?

Sudden loss of muscle tone leading to collapse, often alongside narcolepsy but otherwise due to excessive emotional response
Autoimmune

34

What is logoclonia?

Like perseveration - repeating last syllable of word over and over

35

What is palilalia?

Repetition of word over and over with increasing frequency

36

Outcomes of schizophrenia in terms of percentages?

25% recover
50% chronic fluctuant
15% have continuous Sx
10% have severe incapacity

37

What is a section 37?

Person convicted of imprisonable offence detained in hospital for Rx and released when 'well'

38

What is a section 41?

Like a section 37 but for 'dangerous' patients who can't be released after Rx without the confirmation of the Home Secretary

39

Section used to detain imprisoned patients in hospital for treatment and subsequent release?

37

40

Section retained for dangerous patients treated under section 37 who can't be released after?

41

41

Patients under which sections can't be treated without informed consent?

72 hour ones - 4, 5(2), 135 and 136

42

What procedures require full informed consent for patients under section 2, 3, 37 or CTO?

Medication over 3 months
ECT

43

Who can apply for sections?

Relatives
Police
AMHPs
Doctors and nurses for 5

44

5 principles of the mental capacity act?

Assume capacity
Support people in making their own decisions
Accept that people may make eccentric or unwise decisions
If capacity lacking, make decisions in best interest of patient
If capacity lacking, make least restrictive decisions

45

2 step functional testing of capacity?

1) does person have an impairment in functioning of mind or brain?
2) if so does it impair their ability to have capacity to make this decision?

46

4 questions to ask yourself when assessing capacity?

Can they take in and understand information
Can they retain information long enough to make decision
Can they weigh up and use the information to make a decision
Can they communicate the decision

47

2 types of LPA?

Property and affairs LPA
Personal welfare LPA incl medical and social

48

Mild moderate severe breakdown of depressive episode in terms of number of Sx?

Mild = 2+2
Moderate = 2+3 or 4
Severe = 3+4 or psychotic, marked biological Sx etc.
All for at least 2 weeks, or less for severe

49

What defines chronic depression?

Sx last over 2 years

50

Management strategies for OCD?

Thought stopping
Response prevention
+/- help from lithium, SSRIs, TCAs

51

3 theories behind development of dissocial PD?

Learning theory
Attachment theory
Psychodynamic theory

52

What personality disorder often shows significant EEG changes?

Dissocial personality disorder

53

5 areas of cognition?

Attention and concentration
Orientation
Memory
Intellect and intelligence
Higher executive function

54

What is neurofibromatosis type 1?

Autosomal dominant condition whereby peripheral nerves grow neurofibromas (skin/subcut tissue)

55

Skin features of neurofibromatosis type 1?

2 or more neurofibromas (well defined erythematous nodules varying in size and shape)
Cafe au lait spots (6 or more) flat patches

56

Non-skin manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1?

Dorsal root spinal cord tumours
Optic nerve gliomas
Lisch nodules (iris hamartomas)
Invasive plexiform neuromas causing bony erosion

57

What characterises neurofibromatosis type 2?

Central schwannomas - main presenting feature is bilateral acoustic neuromas in 20s causing SN hearing loss
Other facial and cranial signs

58

Max eye score for GCS?

4

59

Max motor score for GCS?

6

60

Max verbal score for GCS?

5

61

Motor scoring for GCS from 6 to 1?

Obeys
Localises pain
Withdraws from pain (normal flexion)
Abnormal flexion (decorticate)
Extension (decerebrate)
None

62

Verbal scores for GCS from 5 to 1?

Oriented
Confused or disoriented
Inappropriate words
Incomprehensible sounds
None

63

MRC grading of motor power?

5 full power
4 reduced power against resistance
3 movement against gravity but not resistance
2 movement with gravity eliminated
1 flickers of movement
0 none