Flashcards in Misleading information [EWT] Deck (10):
How did Loftus & Palmer investigate the effect of leading questions on EWT answers?
- ppts watched film clips of car accidents
- they were questioned on the clips
- leading question: "How fast were the cars travelling when they _______?"
- Verbs: hit, contacted, bumped, collided, smashed
mean estimation with 'contacted' = 31.8 mph
mean estimation with 'smashed' = 40.5 mph
= the leading question biased the eyewitness recall
How is the study on leading questions useful?
Useful for structuring police interviews
= improvements to legal system
How has the study on leading questions been criticised?
Artificial task = lacks the same stress/anxiety levels
What are the 2 explanations for the effect of leading question in creating a bias answer?
RESPONSE BIAS EXPLANATION
How does the response bias explanation explain the effect of leading questions?
The wording doesn't effect the memory itself, just the way the witness chooses to answer - they are encouraged to exaggerate
How does the substitution explanation explain the effect of leading questions?
The wording itself changes the memory
A SECOND STUDY WAS CONDUCTED WHERE PPTS WERE ASKED ABT NON-EXISTENT BROKEN GLASS, 'SMASHED' PPTS SAID THEY HAD SEEN SOME
How did Gabbert investigate the effect of post-event discussion on EWT answers?
- studied ppts in pairs
- each ppt watched a video of the same crime, filmed from different angles
- both ppts discussed what they had seen
- each ppt took an individual test of recall
71% mistakenly recalled aspects that hadn't been in their own video but had picked up on in discussion
0% mistaken recall in control group
= witnesses often make up information they have heard from other witnesses
How can the effect of post-event discussion be explained?
Social desirability - they go along with other witnesses for social approval or because they believe the other witness is right
How has Gabbert's study been criticised?
Artificial task = not same anxiety levels as real life = low external validity