Misleading information [EWT] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Misleading information [EWT] Deck (10):
1

How did Loftus & Palmer investigate the effect of leading questions on EWT answers?

- ppts watched film clips of car accidents
- they were questioned on the clips
- leading question: "How fast were the cars travelling when they _______?"
- Verbs: hit, contacted, bumped, collided, smashed
RESULTS
mean estimation with 'contacted' = 31.8 mph
mean estimation with 'smashed' = 40.5 mph
= the leading question biased the eyewitness recall

2

How is the study on leading questions useful?

Useful for structuring police interviews
= improvements to legal system

3

How has the study on leading questions been criticised?

Artificial task = lacks the same stress/anxiety levels

4

What are the 2 explanations for the effect of leading question in creating a bias answer?

RESPONSE BIAS EXPLANATION
SUBSTITUTION EXPLANATION

5

How does the response bias explanation explain the effect of leading questions?

The wording doesn't effect the memory itself, just the way the witness chooses to answer - they are encouraged to exaggerate

6

How does the substitution explanation explain the effect of leading questions?

The wording itself changes the memory
A SECOND STUDY WAS CONDUCTED WHERE PPTS WERE ASKED ABT NON-EXISTENT BROKEN GLASS, 'SMASHED' PPTS SAID THEY HAD SEEN SOME

7

How did Gabbert investigate the effect of post-event discussion on EWT answers?

- studied ppts in pairs
- each ppt watched a video of the same crime, filmed from different angles
- both ppts discussed what they had seen
- each ppt took an individual test of recall
RESULTS
71% mistakenly recalled aspects that hadn't been in their own video but had picked up on in discussion
0% mistaken recall in control group
= witnesses often make up information they have heard from other witnesses

8

How can the effect of post-event discussion be explained?

Social desirability - they go along with other witnesses for social approval or because they believe the other witness is right

9

How has Gabbert's study been criticised?

Artificial task = not same anxiety levels as real life = low external validity

10

What other factor affects recall?

INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES
- Anastasi & Rhodes found that ppl under 45 were better at recall than those over 55
OWN AGE BIAS
- all age groups are more accurate at identifying others in their own age group