Retrieval failure [FORGETTING] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Retrieval failure [FORGETTING] Deck (14):
1

What is retrieval failure?

When a memory is available but not accessible

2

What is the theory of retrieval failure?

People forget things due to insufficient cues - when information is processed, meaningful cues are stored and if these cues aren't available at time of recall, the information may not be able to be retrieved

3

What is encoding specificity principle?

If a cue is going to help us remember, it must be present at encoding and retrieval. Some cues may be state-dependent or context-dependent, and are linked to information in a meaningful way

4

How does Godden & Baddeley's research support the encoding specificity principle?

Investigated how environmental CONTEXT affects recall
- divers were asked to learn a list of words underwater or on land
- they then had to recall the words either underwater or on land
RESULTS
accurate recall was 40% LOWER in non-matching conditions
= the presence of external contextual cues significantly improves memory recall

5

Who came up with the encoding specificity principle?

TULVING

6

What does Godden & Baddeley's study show about cues?

They must be present at encoding and recall to have an effect

7

How has Godden & Baddeley's study been criticised?

- BADDELEY argued that normal life won't have 2 contexts as different as land/water
= context doesn't have a big effect in real life
- small sample of divers, could have similar cognitive abilities

8

What happened when Godden & Baddeley's study was changed to recognition of words not recall?

The different conditions didn't affect recall ability
= the presence of context cues only affects recall when a certain type of memory is being tested

9

How does Carter & Cassaday's study support the encoding specificity principle?

Investigated how INTERNAL STATE affects memory recall
- ppts had to learn a list of words, half had taken anti-histamines with a mild sedative effect
- half were given anti-histamines then had to recall words
RESULTS
when internal state at encoding and recall was different, recall was significantly worse
= state cues must be present at encoding and recall for best effect

10

What does Carter & Cassaday's study show about cues?

They must be present at encoding and recall to have an effect

11

How has Carter & Cassaday's study been criticised?

Individual differences in response to drugs
Potential harm from drugs

12

How can the encoding specificity principle be applied to real life?

EYE WITNESS TESTIMONIES - taking witnesses to the scene could reduce context-dependent forgetting

13

Who investigated context-dependent forgetting?

Godden and Baddeley

14

Who investigated state-dependent forgetting?

Carter and Cassaday