Retrieval failure [FORGETTING] Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Retrieval failure [FORGETTING] Deck (14):

What is retrieval failure?

When a memory is available but not accessible


What is the theory of retrieval failure?

People forget things due to insufficient cues - when information is processed, meaningful cues are stored and if these cues aren't available at time of recall, the information may not be able to be retrieved


What is encoding specificity principle?

If a cue is going to help us remember, it must be present at encoding and retrieval. Some cues may be state-dependent or context-dependent, and are linked to information in a meaningful way


How does Godden & Baddeley's research support the encoding specificity principle?

Investigated how environmental CONTEXT affects recall
- divers were asked to learn a list of words underwater or on land
- they then had to recall the words either underwater or on land
accurate recall was 40% LOWER in non-matching conditions
= the presence of external contextual cues significantly improves memory recall


Who came up with the encoding specificity principle?



What does Godden & Baddeley's study show about cues?

They must be present at encoding and recall to have an effect


How has Godden & Baddeley's study been criticised?

- BADDELEY argued that normal life won't have 2 contexts as different as land/water
= context doesn't have a big effect in real life
- small sample of divers, could have similar cognitive abilities


What happened when Godden & Baddeley's study was changed to recognition of words not recall?

The different conditions didn't affect recall ability
= the presence of context cues only affects recall when a certain type of memory is being tested


How does Carter & Cassaday's study support the encoding specificity principle?

Investigated how INTERNAL STATE affects memory recall
- ppts had to learn a list of words, half had taken anti-histamines with a mild sedative effect
- half were given anti-histamines then had to recall words
when internal state at encoding and recall was different, recall was significantly worse
= state cues must be present at encoding and recall for best effect


What does Carter & Cassaday's study show about cues?

They must be present at encoding and recall to have an effect


How has Carter & Cassaday's study been criticised?

Individual differences in response to drugs
Potential harm from drugs


How can the encoding specificity principle be applied to real life?

EYE WITNESS TESTIMONIES - taking witnesses to the scene could reduce context-dependent forgetting


Who investigated context-dependent forgetting?

Godden and Baddeley


Who investigated state-dependent forgetting?

Carter and Cassaday